© Copyright 2007- Frontiers Media SA.
All rights reserved.

All content included on Frontiers websites (including Loop), such as text, graphics, logos, button icons, images, video/audio clips, downloads, data compilations and software, is the property of the person or entity who or which owned it prior to submission to Frontiers. If not owned by Frontiers it is licensed to Frontiers Media SA (“Frontiers”) or its licensees and/or subcontractors.

The copyright in the text of individual articles (including research articles, opinion articles, book reviews, conference proceedings and abstracts) is the property of their respective authors, subject to a general license granted to Frontiers and a Creative Commons CC-BY licence granted to all others, as specified below. The compilation of all content on this site, as well as the design and look and feel of this website are the exclusive property of Frontiers.

All contributions to Frontiers (including Loop) may be copied and re-posted or re-published in accordance with the Creative Commons licence referred to below.

Images and graphics not forming part of user-contributed materials may not be downloaded or copied without Frontiers’ explicit and specific permission.

The combination of all content on Frontiers websites, and the look and feel of the Frontiers websites, is the property of Frontiers Media SA.

Articles and other user-contributed materials may be downloaded and reproduced subject to any copyright or other notices.

As an author or contributor you grant permission to others to reproduce your articles, including any graphics and third-party materials supplied by you, in accordance with the Frontiers Terms and Conditions and subject to any copyright notices which you include in connection with such materials. The licence granted to third parties is a Creative Common Attribution ("CC BY") licence. The current version is CC-BY, version 4.0 (, and the licence will automatically be updated as and when updated by the Creative Commons organisation.

Note that for articles published prior to July 2012, the licence granted may be different and you should check the pdf version of any article to establish what licence was granted. If an article carries only a non-commercial licence and you wish to obtain a commercial licence, please contact Frontiers at

All software used on this site, and the copyright in the code constituting such software, is the property of or is licensed to Frontiers and its use is restricted in accordance with the Frontiers Terms and Conditions. All copyright, and all rights therein, are protected by national and international copyright laws.

The above represents a summary only. For the full conditions see the Frontiers Terms and Conditions.

© 2007 - 2016 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved