Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis
- 1Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
- 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a brain imaging technique that can be used to demonstrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate (ALE) technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with SAD. Methods: A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially emotive cues in SAD was undertaken. ALE meta-analysis, a voxel-based meta-analytic technique, was used to estimate the most significant activations during emotional recognition. Results: Seven studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, constituting a total of 91 subjects with SAD, and 93 healthy controls. The most significant areas of activation during emotional vs. neutral stimuli in individuals with SAD compared to controls were: bilateral amygdala, left medial temporal lobe encompassing the entorhinal cortex, left medial aspect of the inferior temporal lobe encompassing perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus, right anterior cingulate, right globus pallidus, and distal tip of right postcentral gyrus. Conclusion: The results are consistent with neuroanatomic models of the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, and the importance of the limbic circuitry in mediating anxiety symptoms.
Keywords: ALE, social anxiety, generalized social phobia, SAD, meta-analysis, fMRI
Citation: Hattingh CJ, Ipser J, Tromp SA, Syal S, Lochner C, Brooks SJ and Stein DJ (2013) Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:347. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00347
Received: 16 September 2012; Paper pending published: 25 October 2012;
Accepted: 16 December 2012; Published online: 17 January 2013.
Reviewed by: Peter Sörös
, University of Western Ontario, Canada Kirsten G. Volz
, Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience (CIN), Germany
Copyright © 2013 Hattingh, Ipser, Tromp, Syal, Lochner, Brooks and Stein. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
*Correspondence: Coenraad J. Hattingh, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, J-Block, Old Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org