Event Abstract

Description of fouling population emerging after the episode of eutrophic crisis in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon

  • 1 Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Spain
  • 2 Aquaium de la Universidad de Alicante. Cuartel de Artillería Pab. 4. C/ Cartagena s/n, 30002 Murcia, Spain

The Mar Menor is a hypersaline coastal lagoon, located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, is one of the largest coastal lagoons in the Mediterranean basin. Over the years, Mar Menor has suffered widespread environmental degradation due to multiple factors causes of Anthropic Origin. The surroundings of the lagoon have suffered in the last decades, a strong drive towards the conversion of the crop water regime. The transformation from rain-fed agriculture to intensively-irrigated agriculture has resulted in increased flows of water and nutrients from the basin, which has led to eutrophication processes. From the second half of 2015 the waters of the Mar Menor have undergone a drastic change in quality due to the massive proliferation of phytoplankton, since then this situation has been maintained which has led to a considerable reduction in light at the bottom of the lagoon, which has prevented photosynthesis of the phanerogamous meadows. In 2016, the ecological status of the Mar Menor went through an unprecedented anthropogenic crisis that developed in record time. The increase in nutrients caused changes in the structure and function of the lagoon ecosystems and the epibenthic and filtering organisms benefited from this imbalance - growing rapidly and reaching a high level of population density. In this study, described the filtering community found in the collectors maintained for a period of more than two months located in two locations in the Mar Menor: El Barón (N 37° 41'45.9 "O 0º 45 '9.48") and Encañizata (N 37º46'9.69 "O 0º 45' 7.79") during the years 2017 and 2018. The presence of 33 species belonging to 27 genus and 8 philum has been observed. The philum Annelide is the best represented species with 12 identified species, the relative abundance in 2017 was 18.2%, while in 2018 it rose to 43.6%. Closely following, is the philum Arthropod, with 6 species identified, had a relative abundance of 79.2% in 2017 and dropped to 45.1% in 2018, Philum Mollusca, with 6 species identified, had a 0% presence in 2017, but in 2018 it rose to 2.1%, Philum Cnidaria, with 3 species identified, had a relative abundance of 2.5% in 2017, while in 2018 it rose to 4.8%, Philum Porifera, with an identified species (Sycon raphanus Schmidt, 1862), which was also 0% in 2017, increased to 3.6%, Philum Echinodermate, with one species identified (Ophiura ophiura Linnaeus, 1758), had also increased in density from 0% in 2017 to 0.01% in 2018, For philum Chordata, an identified species of ascidia sp, also surfaced in 2018 with a 0.046% relative abundance, and a species of the genus Nemertea sp, turned up with a 0.01% relative density in the same year. (Figure 1,2). Within Annelida family, the genus with the most significant wealth of species is the Hydroides sp. with three species: Hydroides norvegica (Gunnerus, 1768), Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873), Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883). Followed by the genus Serpula sp. with two species: Serpula vermicularis (Linnaeus, 1767) and Serpula concharum (Langerhans, 1880). In the present work, some specimens detected were considered as bi-operculate, that is, with the presence of two operculi. Among the polychaetes found in 2017 the relative abundance of bi-operculate was 1.4%, while in 2018 it was 1.01%. In some of the bi-operculate specimens found, the operculum presented different morphological characteristics and matched the characters of different species, while in other organism they presented operculums with similar morphological characteristics (Figure 3A, B). In addition, two specimens with three operculums have been found (Figure 4). Bi-operculated and tri-operculated organisms are associated with an advanced ontogenetic stage of polychaetes. However, in no case is it considered a different taxon. The study of Mar Menor has allowed to understand how the emerging communities are structured in the lagoon after the eutrophic crisis and how they respond to the different anthropogenic stresses. Mar Menor is characterized by extreme values of temperature and salinity and the species that inhabit them must adapt to fluctuations. The process of eutrophication causes a high availability of nutrients, a drop in pH and as a consequence an increase in dissolved calcium carbonate. This situation favors the growth and excessive development of the filtering community and especially those with calcareous tube.

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the Department of Marine Science and Applied Biology of the University of Alicante especially Vincent Pardo, Rosa Canales, Carmen Barberá and Eleuterio Aballan, the AQUARIUM from the University of Murcia and Dr. CristinaAlmansa Carrascosa microscopy unit Technical Services UA.

Keywords: Ecol ogy, Lagoons, Eutrophication, polychaetes, Bi-operculate

Conference: XX Iberian Symposium on Marine Biology Studies (SIEBM XX) , Braga, Portugal, 9 Sep - 12 Sep, 2019.

Presentation Type: Poster Presentation

Topic: Ecology, Biodiversity and Vulnerable Ecosystems

Citation: Sandonnini J, Del Pilar Ruso Y, Cortés Melendreras E and Giménez Casalduero F (2019). Description of fouling population emerging after the episode of eutrophic crisis in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. Front. Mar. Sci. Conference Abstract: XX Iberian Symposium on Marine Biology Studies (SIEBM XX) . doi: 10.3389/conf.fmars.2019.08.00018

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Received: 02 Aug 2019; Published Online: 27 Sep 2019.

* Correspondence:
Prof. Yoana Del Pilar Ruso, Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Valencian Community, 03690, Spain, yoana.delpilar@ua.es
Dr. Emilio Cortés Melendreras, Aquaium de la Universidad de Alicante. Cuartel de Artillería Pab. 4. C/ Cartagena s/n, 30002 Murcia, murcia, Spain, ecortes@um.es
Prof. Francisca Giménez Casalduero, Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Valencian Community, 03690, Spain, francisca.gimenez@ua.es