Event Abstract

THE EFFECTS OF QEEG GUIDED NEUROFEEDBACK TREATMENT (NFT) ON PATIENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID): A CLINICAL CASE SERIES WITH 67 SUBJECTS.

  • 1 Living Health Center for Research and Education, Turkey

BACKGROUND: Intellectual Disability is a disorder that causes problems in cognition, behavior, communication, sociability, and health. Given that NF has been found to be effective in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Learning Disabilities (LD) and based on the results of two previous case studies we have conducted in children with Trisomy 21 (Down’s Syndrome) and in children with Intellectual Disability, where we have seen the positive effects of Neurofeedback (NF) treatment, we hypothesized that NF treatment would be effective in a larger group of children with Intellectual Disability. METHODS: We analyzed the IQ of a case series of 67 intellectually disabled children (39 Male, 28 Female) in the age ranges of 6 – 16 years of age (Mean 12.2, 95%CI: 10.4-13.9) before and after QEEG Guided Neurofeedback treatment. The goal of the Neurofeedback treatment was to normalize frequencies in areas that were found to be outside the norms based on QEEG recording and comparison to a normative database. The hypothesis was that by normalizing the brain’s electrical activity we would be able to see a corresponding improvement in intellectual functioning as measured by the IQ scores. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in IQ scores were observed after Neurofeedback treatment. Overall the average increases were above any expected gains to a retest factor; that is, more than 6 points increase in VIQ, more than 9 points in PIQ, and 7 points in FSIQ CONCLUSION: Based on these findings further controlled studies using this methodology in this group of patients is warranted.

References

REFERENCES
1. American Psychiatric Association. 1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing ; 2013.
2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4thed., text rev.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2000.
3. American Psychiatric Association. Intellectual Disability Fact Sheet. May 13, 2014. http://www.dsm5.org/documents/intellectual%20disability%20fact%20sheet.pdf.

4. Surmeli T, Ertem A. Post WISC-R and TOVA improvement with QEEG guided neurofeedback training in mentally retarded: A clinical case series of behavioral problems. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. 2010:41(1): 32-41.
5. Lakhan R. The Coexistence of Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Disability in Children Aged 3–18 Years in the Barwani District, India. ISRN Psychiatry. 2013:Article ID 875873, 6 pages.
6. Carr J. Six weeks to 45 years: a longitudinal study of a population with Down syndrome. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. Sep 2012;25(5):414-22.
7. Kanayaa T, Cecia S, Scullinb M. The rise and fall of IQ in special ed: Historical trends and their implications. Journal of School Psychology. 2003;41:453–465.
8. Luiz C, Gong Y. Stability of intellectual structure of learning disabled and normal children. Psychological Science (China). 1993;1:158-161.
9. Streissguth A, Randels S, Smith D. A test-retest study of intelligence in patients with fetal alcohol syndrome: implications for care. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. July 1991;30(4):584-7.
10. Haddad F, Juliano J, Vaughan D. Long-term stability of individual WISC-R IQS of learning disabled children. Psychol Rep. Feb 1994;74(1):15-18.
11. Kaye D, Baron M. Long-term stability of intelligence and achievement scores in specific-learning-disabilities samples. J Psychoedu Assess. 1987;5:257-266.
12. Spitz HH. The Raising of Intelligence: A Selected History of Attempts to Raise Retarded Intelligence. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 1986.
13. Steiner N, Frenette E, Rene K, Brennan R, Perrin E. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools/. J Dev Behav Pediatr. Jan 2014a;35(1):18-27.
14. Steiner N, Frenette E, Rene K, Brennan R, Perrin E. In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics. Mar 2014b;133(3):483-492.
15. Beauregard M, Levesque J. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychology and Biofeedback. 2006a;31:3–20.
16. Levesque J, Beauregard M, Mensour B. Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuro-science Letters. 2006b;394:216–221.
17. Arns M, de Ridder S, Streh U, Breteler M, Coenen A. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: The effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: a Meta-Analysis. EEG and Clinical Neuroscience. 2009;40(3):180-189.
18. Hodgson K, Hutchinson A, Denson L. Nonpharmacological Treatments for ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2012;20(10):1-8.
19. Pigott H, Cannon R. Neurofeedback is the Best Available First-Line Treatment for ADHD: What is the Evidence for this Claim? Neuroregulation. 2014a;1:4-24.
20. Pigott H, Cannon R. Neurofeedback is the Best Available First-Line Treatment for ADHD: What is the Evidence for this Claim? Neuroregulation. 2014b;1:4-24.
21. Meisel V, Servera M, Garcia-Banda G, Cardo E, Moreno I. Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up. Biol Psychol. Sept 2013;94(1):12-21.
22. Becerra J, Fernandez T, Harmony T, et.al. Follow-Up Study of Learning-Disabled Children Treated With Neurofeedback or Placebo. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. 2006;37(3):198-203.
23. Fernández T, Herrera W, T H, Díaz-Comas L, et.al. EEG and Behavioral Changes Following Neurofeedback Treatment in Learning Disabled Children. Clinical Electroencephalography. 2003;34(3):145-152.
24. Fernández T, Harmony T, Fernández-Bouzas T, Díaz-Comas L, et.al. Changes in EEG Current Sources Induced by Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children: An Exploratory Study. Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback. 2007;32(3-4):169-183.
25. Beauregard M, Levesque J. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychology and Biofeedback. 2006;31:3–20.
26. Gevensleben H, Holl B, Albrecht B, C V, Schlamp D, al. e. Is neurofeed-back an efficacious treatment for ADHD?: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2009;50:780–789.
27. Levesque J, Beauregard M, Mensour B. Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuro-science Letters. 2006;394:216–221.
28. Omizo M, Michael W. Biofeedback-induced relaxation training and impulsivity, attention to task, and locus of control among hyperactive boys. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 1982;15:414–416.
29. Rivera E, Omizo M. The effects of relaxation and biofeedback on attention to task and impulsivity among male hyperactive children. The Exceptional Child. 1980;27:41-51.
30. American Academy of Pediatrics. Evidence-Based Child And Adolescent Psychosocial Interventions. American Academy of Pediatrics. May 2013–October 2013. http://coe.csusb.edu/documents/CRPsychosocialInterventions.pdf.

31. Surmeli T, Ertem A. QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Therapy in Personality Disorders: 13 Case Studies. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. 2009;40(1):5-10.
32. Hughes J, John E. Conventional and quantitative electroencephalograpy in psychiatry. Neuropsychiat Clin Neurosci. 1999;11(2):190-208.
33. John E. Principles of Neurometrics. Am J EEG Technol. 1990;30:251-266.
34. Guy W, ed. Clinical Global Impression (CGI). ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. Rockville: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1976.
35. John E, Pricheps L, Ahn K, et al. Neurometric Evaluation Of Brain Function In Normal And Learning Disabled Children. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; 1989.
36. Prischep L, John E. Neurometrics: Clinical applications. In: Lopes da Silva F, Storm van Leeuwen W, Remond A, eds. Clinical Applications of Computer Analysis of EEG and other Neurophysiological Variables. Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Vol 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1986.
37. Thatcher R. Normative EEG databases and Biofeedback. Neurotherapy. 1998;2(4):8-39.
38. Walker J, Kozlowski G, Lawson R. A Modular Activation / Coherence Approach to Evaluating Clinical /QEEG Correlations and for Guiding Neurofeedback Training. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2007;11(1):25-44.
39. Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation; 1974.
40. Wigton N, Kringbaum G. Attention, Executive Function, Behavior, and Electrocortical Function, Significantly İmproved With 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback in a Clinical Setting: A Pilot Study. J Atten Disord. March 2015.
41. Spitz H. The Raising of Intelligence: A Selected History of Attempts to Raise Retarded Intelligence. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erbaum Associates; 1986.
42. Torres A, Whitney J, Gonzalez-Heydrich J. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in pediatric patients with epilepsy: review of pharmacological treatment. Epilepsy Behav. Feb 2008;12(2):217-233.
43. Gonzalez-Heydrich J, Whitney J, Waber D, et al. Adaptive phase I study of OROS methylphenidate treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. Jul 2010;18(3):229-237.
44. Fonseca L, Tedrus G, Moraes C, Vicente Machado A, Almeida M, Oliveira D. Epileptiform abnormalities and quantitative EEG in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. Sept 2008;66(3A):462-467.
45. Filho A, Bodanase R, Silva T, Alvares J, Aman M, Rohde L. Comparison of Risperidone and Methylphenidate for Reducing ADHD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents With Moderate Mental Retardation. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2005;44(8):748-755.
46. El-Zein R, Abdel-Rahman S, Hay M, et al. Cytogenetic effects in children treated with methylphenidate. Cancer Lett. Dec 2005;230(2):284-291.
47. Volkow N, Wang G, Fowler J, et al. Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extracellular dopamine in the human brain. J Neurosci. Jan 2001;21(2):RC121.
48. Nasrallah H, Loney J, Olson S, M MW, Kramer J, CG J. Cortical atrophy in young adults with a history of hyperactivity in childhood. Psychiatry Res. Mar 1986;17(3):241-246.
49. Kaplan B, Giesbrecht G, Shannon S, McLeod K. Evaluating treatments in health care: The instability of a one-legged stool. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2011;11:65.
50. Benson K, Hartz A. A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000;342(25):1878- 1886.
51. Concato J, Shah N, Horwitz R. Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000;342(25):1887-1892.
52. Britton A, McPherson K, KcKee M, Sanderson C, Black N, Bain C. Choosing between randomized and non-randomized studies: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment. 1998;2(13):1-124.
53. Hong C, Lee I. Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Attention in Children with Intellectual Disability. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2012;16:110-122.
54. Breteler R, Pesch W, Nador

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, Id, qEEG, Neurometric analysis, database, Neurofeedback, EEG biofeedback

Conference: SAN2016 Meeting, Corfu, Greece, 6 Oct - 9 Oct, 2016.

Presentation Type: Oral Presentation in SAN 2016 Conference

Topic: Oral Presentations

Citation: Surmeli T (2016). THE EFFECTS OF QEEG GUIDED NEUROFEEDBACK TREATMENT (NFT) ON PATIENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY (ID): A CLINICAL CASE SERIES WITH 67 SUBJECTS.. Conference Abstract: SAN2016 Meeting. doi: 10.3389/conf.fnhum.2016.220.00004

Copyright: The abstracts in this collection have not been subject to any Frontiers peer review or checks, and are not endorsed by Frontiers. They are made available through the Frontiers publishing platform as a service to conference organizers and presenters.

The copyright in the individual abstracts is owned by the author of each abstract or his/her employer unless otherwise stated.

Each abstract, as well as the collection of abstracts, are published under a Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 (attribution) licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) and may thus be reproduced, translated, adapted and be the subject of derivative works provided the authors and Frontiers are attributed.

For Frontiers’ terms and conditions please see https://www.frontiersin.org/legal/terms-and-conditions.

Received: 29 Jul 2016; Published Online: 30 Jul 2016.

* Correspondence: Dr. Tanju Surmeli, Living Health Center for Research and Education, Istanbul, 34394, Turkey, neuropsychiatry@yahoo.com