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Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. | doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2018.00179

Reusable Flexible Concentric Electrodes Coated with a Conductive Graphene Ink for Electrotactile Stimulation

  • 1University of Wollongong, Australia

Electrotactile stimulation is a highly promising technique for providing sensory feedback information for prosthetics. To this aim, disposable electrodes which are predominantly used result in a high environmental and financial cost when used over a long period of time. In addition, disposable electrodes are limited in their size and configurations. This paper presents an alternative approach based on a 3D printed reusable flexible concentric electrode coated with a conductive graphene ink. Here, we have characterised the electrode and demonstrated its effective performance in electrotactile stimulation and sensory feedback for robotic prosthetic hands.

Keywords: Dry electrode, electro cutaneous stimulation, 3D printed electrode, Graphene ink, Sensory feedback

Received: 26 Aug 2018; Accepted: 07 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez, University of Valladolid, Spain

Reviewed by:

Virgilio Mattoli, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Technologia, Italy
Felippe J Pavinatto, University of Washington, United States  

Copyright: © 2018 Stephens-Fripp, Sencadas, Mutlu and ALICI. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Gursel ALICI, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, 2522, New South Wales, Australia,