Biophysics of cell-substrate interactions under shear
- 1Indian Institute of Science (IISc), India
- 2Raman Research Institute, India
- 3Institute of Mathematical Sciences, India
Cells adhere to substrates through mechanosensitive focal adhesion complexes. Measurements that probe how cells detach from substrates when they experience an applied force connect molecular-scale aspects of cell adhesion with the biophysical properties of adherent cells. Such forces can be applied through shear devices that flow fluid in a controlled manner across cells. The signalling pathways associated with focal adhesions, in particular those that involve integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, are complex, receiving mechano-chemical feedback from the sensing of substrate stiffness as well as of external forces. This article reviews the literature on the signalling processes involved in mechanosensing and mechanotransduction during cell-substrate interactions, describing the role such signalling plays in cancer metastasis. We examine review some recent progress in quantifying the strength of these interactions, describing a novel fluid shear device that allows for the visualization of the cell and its sub-cellular structures under a shear flow. We also summarize related results from a biophysical model for cellular de-adhesion induced by applied forces. Quantifying cell-substrate adhesions under shear should aid in the development of mechano-diagnostic techniques for diseases in which cell-adhesion is mis-regulated, such as cancers.
Keywords: Focal adhesions (FA), Stress Fibers, Mechanotransduction, shear stress, devices, Biophysical models of growth
Received: 28 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Paddillaya, Mishra, Kondaiah, Pullarkat, Menon and Gundiah. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Pramod Pullarkat, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, 560080, Karnataka, India, email@example.com
Prof. Gautam I. Menon, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Namrata Gundiah, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, 560 012, Karnataka, India, email@example.com