A review on the catalytic acetalization of bio-renewable glycerol to fuel additives
- 1Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Iran
- 2University of Technology Malaysia, Malaysia
- 3Iran Industrial Design Co, Iran
The last 20 years have seen an unprecedented breakthrough in the biodiesel industry worldwide leads to abundance of glycerol. Therefore, the economic utilization of glycerol to various value-added chemicals is vital for the sustainability of the biodiesel industry. One of the promising processes is acetalization of glycerol to acetals and ketals for applications as fuel additives. These products could be obtained by acid-catalysed reaction of glycerol with aldehydes and ketones. Application of different supported heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, heteropoly acids, metal-based and acid-exchange resins have been evaluated comprehensively in this field. In this review, the glycerol acetalization has been reported, focusing on innovative and potential technologies for sustainable production of solketal. In addition, the impacts of various parameters such as application of different reactants, reaction temperature, water removal, utilization of crude-glycerol on catalytic activity in both batch and continuous processes are discussed. The outcomes of this research will therefore significantly improve the technology required in tomorrow’s bio-refineries. This review provides spectacular opportunities for us to use such renewables and will consequently benefit the industry, environment and economy.
Keywords: Glycerol, Acetalization and ketalization, Fuel additives, heterogeneous catalysts, Acetone, ketone
Received: 27 Aug 2018;
Accepted: 05 Nov 2018.
Edited by:Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Sunway University, Malaysia
Reviewed by:Maan Hayyan, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Abdul Aziz A. Abdul Raman, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Copyright: © 2018 Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Saidina Amin, Tarighi and Najaafi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Nor Aishah S. Saidina Amin, University of Technology Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, firstname.lastname@example.org