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Front. Chem. | doi: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00021

Revisiting the Growth of Black Phosphorus in Sn-I Assisted Reactions

 Dongya Wang1,  Peng Yi1,  Lin Wang1, Lu Zhang1,  Hai Li1,  Min Lu1,  Xiaoji Xie1*, Ling Huang1 and Wei Huang1, 2
  • 1Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University, China
  • 2Shaanxi Institute of Flexible Electronics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China

Black phosphorus, an emerging layered material, exhibits promising applications in diverse fields, ranging from electronics to optics. However, controlled synthesis of black phosphorus, particularly its few-layered counterparts, is still challenging, which should be due to the unclear growth mechanisms of black phosphorus. Here, taking the most commonly used Sn-I assisted synthesis of black phosphorus as an example, we propose a growth mechanism of black phosphorus crystals by monitoring the reactions and analysing the as-synthesized products. In the proposed mechanism, Sn24P19.3I8 is the active site for the growth of black phosphorus, and the black phosphorus crystals are formed with the assistance of SnI2, following a polymerization-like process. In addition, we suggest that all Sn-I assisted synthesis of black phosphorus should share the same reaction mechanism despite the differences among Sn-I containing additives. Our results shown here should shed light on the controlled synthesis of black phosphorus and facilitate further applications of black phosphorus.

Keywords: Black phosphorus, growth mechanism, Tin iodide, Chemical vapor transport, 2D materials

Received: 04 Dec 2018; Accepted: 10 Jan 2019.

Edited by:

Luís A. Carlos, University of Aveiro, Portugal

Reviewed by:

Amir Pakdel, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Zhong Jin, Nanjing University, China  

Copyright: © 2019 Wang, Yi, Wang, Zhang, Li, Lu, Xie, Huang and Huang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Xiaoji Xie, Nanjing Tech University, Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing, China,