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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Chem. | doi: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00185

Delayed bitterness of citrus wine is removed through the selection of fining agents and fining optimization

 Li Hua1*,  Bi Jingying1, 2,  Hua Wang1 and Wang Tao3
  • 1College of Enology, Northwestern Agricultural University, China
  • 2Ningxia Vocational and Technical College, China
  • 3School of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China

“Delayed bitterness” (DB) in citrus wine is caused by limonoids and determines the acceptability to consumers. In this study, a variety of fining agents, specifically gelatin, agar, chitosan, bentonite, the crosslinking agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), diatomite, and casein, were evaluated for their ability to lower DB in citrus wine. Factorial experiments with three factors at four levels (L34) and with two factors at three levels (L23) were used to determine the optimal effect. We found that a mixture of agar (125 mg/L) and gelatin (30 mg/L) not only decreased the limonoid concentration and clarified the liquor, but also increased the precipitation content, retention rate of ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity. After treatment, the quality of the citrus wine was improved, and a few volatile chemical compounds were lost. We determined that agar and gelatin were the best fining agents for reducing DB in citrus wine.

Keywords: citrus wine, Delayed bitterness, Limonoid, Fining agent, Agar, Gelatin

Received: 20 Jun 2018; Accepted: 11 Mar 2019.

Edited by:

Andrea Buettner, Fraunhofer-Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Germany

Reviewed by:

Vesna Rastija, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Osijek, Croatia
Pangzhen Zhang, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Michael Rychlik, Technische Universität München, Germany  

Copyright: © 2019 Hua, Jingying, Wang and Tao. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Li Hua, College of Enology, Northwestern Agricultural University, Yangling, China,