Nanoplasmonic approaches for sensitive detection and molecular characterization of extracellular vesicles
- 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, United States
- 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, United States
All cells release a multitude of nanoscale extracellular vesicles (nEVs) into circulation, offering immense potential for new diagnostic strategies. Yet, clinical translation for nEVs remains a challenge due to their vast heterogeneity, our insufficient ability to isolate subpopulations, and the low frequency of disease-associated nEVs in biofluids. The growing field of nanoplasmonics is poised to address many of these challenges. Innovative materials engineering approaches based on exploiting nanoplasmonic phenomena, i.e. the unique interaction of light with nanoscale metallic materials, can achieve unrivaled sensitivity, offering real-time analysis and new modes of medical and biological imaging. We begin with an introduction into the basic structure and function of nEVs before critically reviewing recent studies utilizing nanoplasmonic platforms to detect and characterize nEVs. For the major techniques considered, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), localized SPR, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), we introduce and summarize the background theory before reviewing the studies applied to nEVs. Along the way, we consider notable aspects, limitations, and considerations needed to apply plasmonic technologies to nEV detection and analysis.
Keywords: Exosomes, diagnostics, LSPR, Nanopillars, Nanoarrays, SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance), SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering)
Received: 17 Jan 2019;
Accepted: 04 Apr 2019.
Edited by:Mehmet Kahraman, University of Gaziantep, Turkey
Reviewed by:Chih-Ching Huang, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan
Aihua Liu, Qingdao University, China
Copyright: © 2019 Rojalin, Phong, Koster and Carney. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Randy P. Carney, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, 95616, California, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org