Original Research ARTICLE
A surface-enhanced Raman spectral library of important drugs associated with point-of-care and field applications.
- 1Other, United States
During the past decade, the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to measure extremely low chemical concentrations, such as mg/L and below, and the availability of hand-held Raman spectrometers, has led to a significant growth in the number and variety of applications of SERS to real-world problems. Most of these applications involve the measurement of drugs, such as quantifying medication in patients, identifying illicit drugs in impaired drivers, and more recently, identifying drugs used as weapons. Similar to Raman spectroscopy, most of the point-of-care and field applications involve the identification of the drug to determine the course of action. However, unlike Raman spectroscopy, spectral libraries are not readily available to perform the necessary identification. In a large part, this is due to the uniqueness of the commercially available SERS substrates, each of which can produce different spectra for the same drug. In an effort to overcome this limitation, we have measured numerous drugs using the most common, and readily available SERS material and hand-held Raman analyzer, specifically gold colloids and Raman analyzers using 785 nm laser excitation. Here we present the spectra of some 39 drugs of current interest, such as buprenorphine, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, and fentanyl, which we hope will aid in the development of current and future SERS drug analysis applications.
Keywords: surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, drug spectral library, Opioids, Fentanyl, Buprenorphine, cannibis, Drug Analysis
Received: 23 May 2019;
Accepted: 08 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Farquharson, Brouillette, Smith and Shende. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Stuart Farquharson, Other, Middletown, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org