Original Research ARTICLE
Ketal sugar conversion into green hydrocarbons by Faujasite Zeolite in a typical catalytic cracking process
- 1Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) converts hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst based on faujazite zeolite (USY and REY). While hydrocarbon is poorly reactive, biomass and its derived compounds are highly functionalized and not suitable to a typical FCC process. To overcome this limitation biomass was first converted into a dense and stable bio-crude composed mainly of ketal-sugar derivatives by using acetone in diluted acid. Here, a representative compound of this bio-crude, 1,2:3,5-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-xylofuranose (DX) in n-hexane, was converted by USY and a commercial FCC catalyst containing USY, at 500°C, in a fixed bed and fluidized bed reactors respectively. Faujasite Y is very efficient in converting DX. More than 95% conversion was observed in all tests. Over 60 wt% was liquid products, followed by gas products and only around 10% or less in coke. The higher the catalyst activity the greater the aromatics in the liquid products and yet higher coke yields were observed. In particular, simulating more practical application conditions: using deactivated catalyst in a fluidized bed reactor, improved green hydrocarbons production (mono-aromatic up to ten carbons and light hydrocarbon up to eight carbons) and unprecedented lower coke yield (≈5 wt.%) for bio-feeds. The present results further suggest that catalyst will play a primary role to convert the bio-crude into target hydrocarbons and overcome the transition of a non-renewable to a renewable refinery feed.
Keywords: Sugar ketals, Biocrude, USY, Hydrocarbons, Aromatics
Received: 21 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Pinto, Pedrosa, Linhares, San Gil, Lam and Pereira. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Marcelo M. Pereira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, email@example.com