Original Research ARTICLE
Cascade aza-Michael addition-cyclizations; towards renewable and multifunctional carboxylic acids for melt-polycondensation
- 1Maastricht University, Netherlands
Although the aza-Michael addition reaction on various unsaturated (di-)carboxylic acids and esters of, for example, itaconic acid, is well known, the consecutive cyclization reaction has not received much attention in literature. The products of this aza-Michael cascade reaction, being mono- or di-carboxylic acid or ester functionalized N-alkyl-pyrrolidone structures, prove interesting for melt-polycondensation reactions as they exhibit excellent stability at elevated temperatures. In other words, this reaction is a toolbox for the generation of renewable monomers and, in turn, polymers with tunable physiological properties. Therefore, this work provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of the cascade aza-Michael addition-cyclization reactions on biobased unsaturated acids and esters, and their use in polymerization reactions. Furthermore, we extend this overview with the cascade aza-Michael addition-cyclization reaction of trans-trimethyl aconitate with di-amines to form a tetra-functional N alkyl-bis-(pyrrolidone dimethylcarboxylate), which exhibits excellent thermal stability and could effectively be used as monomer in polycondensation reactions. Importantly, the aza-Michael addition reaction between primary amines and trans-trimethyl aconitate can be considered a click-reaction; it proceeds quantitatively within minutes under ambient conditions and follows the principles of green chemistry.
Keywords: aza-Michael addition-cyclisation, N-alkyl-pyrrolidone methylcarboxylate, Itaconic acid, Aconitic Acid, Renewable monomers, polycondensation
Received: 30 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 11 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Noordzij and Wilsens. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Carolus Wilsens, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6211 LK, Netherlands, email@example.com