%A Güttler,Ivan
%A Marinović,Ivana
%A Večenaj,Željko
%A Grisogono,Branko
%D 2016
%J Frontiers in Earth Science
%C
%F
%G English
%K Katabatic flow,Anabatic flow,Prandtl model,Nonlinear solution,Total energy
%Q
%R 10.3389/feart.2016.00072
%W
%L
%N 72
%M
%P
%7
%8 2016-July-06
%9 Original Research
%+ Ivan Güttler,Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia,Zagreb, Croatia,ivan.guettler@cirus.dhz.hr
%#
%! Energetics of the weakly nonlinear Prandtl model
%*
%<
%T Energetics of Slope Flows: Linear and Weakly Nonlinear Solutions of the Extended Prandtl Model
%U https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2016.00072
%V 4
%0 JOURNAL ARTICLE
%@ 2296-6463
%X The Prandtl model succinctly combines the 1D stationary boundary-layer dynamics and thermodynamics of simple anabatic and katabatic flows over uniformly inclined surfaces. It assumes a balance between the along-the-slope buoyancy component and adiabatic warming/cooling, and the turbulent mixing of momentum and heat. In this study, energetics of the Prandtl model is addressed in terms of the total energy (TE) concept. Furthermore, since the authors recently developed a weakly nonlinear version of the Prandtl model, the TE approach is also exercised on this extended model version, which includes an additional nonlinear term in the thermodynamic equation. Hence, interplay among diffusion, dissipation, and temperature-wind interaction of the mean slope flow is further explored. The TE of the nonlinear Prandtl model is assessed in an ensemble of solutions where the Prandtl number, the slope angle and the nonlinearity parameter are perturbed. It is shown that nonlinear effects have the lowest impact on variability in the ensemble of solutions of the weakly nonlinear Prandtl model when compared to the other two governing parameters. The general behavior of the nonlinear solution is similar to the linear solution, except that the maximum of the along-the-slope wind speed in the nonlinear solution reduces for larger slopes. Also, the dominance of PE near the sloped surface, and the elevated maximum of KE in the linear and nonlinear energetics of the extended Prandtl model are found in the PASTEX-94 measurements. The corresponding level where KE>PE most likely marks the bottom of the sublayer subject to shear-driven instabilities. Finally, possible limitations of the weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model are raised. In linear solutions, the local storage of TE term is zero, reflecting the stationarity of solutions by definition. However, in nonlinear solutions, the diffusion, dissipation and interaction terms (where the height of the maximum interaction is proportional to the height of the low-level jet by the factor ≈4/9) do not balance and the local storage of TE attains nonzero values. In order to examine the issue of non-stationarity, the inclusion of velocity-pressure covariance in the momentum equation is suggested for future development of the extended Prandtl model.