Mini Review ARTICLE
Organotin exposure and vertebrate reproduction: a review
- 1Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil
Organotin compounds (OTs) are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occurs in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown over the years the effects of this contamination because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms. In male animals, OTs decrease the weights of the testis and epididymis and reduce the spermatid count, among other dysfunctions. In female animals, OTs alter the weights of the ovaries and uteri and induce damage to the ovaries. In addition, OTs prevent fetal implantation and reduce mammalian pregnancy rates. OTs cross the placental barrier and accumulate in the placental and fetal tissues. Exposure to OTs in utero leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells and gonocytes of male offspring in addition to inducing early puberty in females. In both genders, this damage is associated with the imbalance of sex hormones and the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Here, we report that OTs act as reproductive disruptors in vertebrate studies; among the compounds are TeBT (tetrabutyltin), TBTCl (tributyltin chloride), TBTAc (tributyltin acetate), TPTCl (triphenyltin chloride), TPTOH (triphenyltin hydroxide), DBTCl (dibutyltin chloride), DBTCl2 (dibutyltin dichloride), DPTCl2 (diphenyltin dichloride), MBT (monobutyltin), and azocyclotin.
Keywords: Organotin Compounds, Reproduction, Vertebrates, Endocrinology, Environmental Pollutants
Received: 28 Nov 2017;
Accepted: 12 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Riccardo Pierantoni, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" Caserta, Italy
Reviewed by:Gilberto Mosconi, University of Camerino, Italy
Paola Piomboni, University of Siena, Italy
Copyright: © 2018 de Araújo, Podratz, Merlo, Sarmento, da Costa, Niño, Faria, Freitas Lima and Graceli. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Ms. Priscila L. Podratz, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org