Mini Review ARTICLE
Effects of Organotins on Crustaceans: Update and Perspectives
- 1Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull’s paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs’ deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and metabolic dysfunction. Crustaceans are key members of zooplankton and benthonic communities and have vital roles in food chains, so the endocrine disrupting effects of TBT (Tributyltin) on crustaceans can affect other organisms. TBT can disrupt carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis of crustaceans by interacting with Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) and Crustacean Hyperglycaemic Hormone (CHH) signaling. Moreover, it can also interact with other nuclear receptors, disrupting MF (Metyl Farnesoate) and ecdysteroid signaling, thereby altering growth and sexual maturity, respectively. This compound also interferes in Cytochrome P450 system disrupting steroid synthesis and reproduction. Crustaceans are also important fisheries worldwide and its consumption can pose risks to human health. However, some questions remain unanswered. This mini review aims to update information about the effects of OTs on the metabolism, growth and reproduction of crustaceans, compare with known effects in mammals, as well as to point aspects that still needs to be addressed in future studies. Since both macro and microcrustaceans are good models to study the effects of sub lethal TBT contamination, novel studies should be developed using multibiomarkers and omics technology.
Keywords: crustaceans, Organotins, endocrine disruption, Growth, Metabolism, Reproduction
Received: 06 Dec 2017;
Accepted: 13 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Leandro Miranda-Alves, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Reviewed by:Taisen Iguchi, National Institute for Basic Biology, Japan
Gabriela Hollmann, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Copyright: © 2018 Vogt, Model and VINAGRE. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Ms. Everton Vogt, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Physiology, Sarmento Leite, 500, Porto Alegre, 90050170, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, email@example.com