Original Research ARTICLE
Evaluation of Quality of Life in the Brazilian Graves` Disease Population: Focus on Mild and Moderate Graves’ Orbitopathy Patients
- 1Endocrinology & Metabolism, School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Brazil
- 2Laboratory of Cancer Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine Sciences, Campinas State University, Brazil
- 3Postgraduated course, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Brazil
- 4Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Brazil
- 5Endocrinology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: Quality of life (QoL) studies in patients with mild to moderate Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) are scarce.
Methods: The original GO-QoL questionnaire was translated to Portuguese and administered to 323 patients with Graves´ disease. The clinically active score (CAS) was used to evaluate GO activity, and the NO SPECS and EUGOGO classifications were used to estimate GO severity.
Results: The internal consistency of the GO-QoL, evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, was optimal. In people with Graves´ disease and long-duration GO, both visual function and appearance scores were negatively associated with the CAS and NOSPECS and EUGOGO classifications (P < 0.001). Asymmetry and proptosis were significantly associated with the visual function and appearance domains, and diplopia was related to the visual function score. In addition, multivariate regression stepwise analysis revealed that disease severity, according to the EUGOGO classification, was associated with the visual function and appearance scores; asymmetry, presence of proptosis, and young age were associated with the appearance score (P < 0.001). The visual function and appearance scores were negatively correlated with the CAS and NOSPECS and EUGOGO classifications (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Graves’ orbitopathy has a negative impact in QoL in patients with mild to moderate disease, even after an extended period, rendering GO a chronic disease. The GO-QoL questionnaire can be helpful in identifying patients in need of attention and support.
Keywords: thyroid, Graves Disease, Graves orbitopathy, Quality of Life, Hyperthyreoidism
Received: 10 Jan 2019;
Accepted: 07 Mar 2019.
Edited by:Michele Marinò, University of Pisa, Italy
Reviewed by:Miloš Žarković, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Francesca Menconi, University of Pisa, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Villagelin, Romaldini, Andrade, Santos, Milkos, Teixeira and Ward. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Danilo Villagelin, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Endocrinology & Metabolism, School of Medicine, Campinas, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org