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Systematic Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Endocrinol. | doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00805

A Systematic Review of Childhood Diabetes Research in the Middle East Region

  • 1Sidra Medicine, Qatar
  • 2Hamad bin Khalifa University, Qatar

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic disorder in children and is caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, with or without insulin resistance. There are several different forms of childhood DM. Children can suffer from neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY), autoimmune monogenic, mitochondrial, syndromic and as yet unclassified forms of DM. The Middle East has one of the highest incidences of several types of DM in children; however, it is unclear whether pediatric diabetes is an active area of research in the Middle East and if ongoing, which research areas are of priority for DM in children.

Objectives: To review the literature on childhood DM related to research in the Middle East, summarize results, identify opportunities for research and make observations and recommendations for collaborative studies in pediatric DM.

Methods: We conducted a thorough and systematic literature review by adhering to a list recommended by PRISMA. We retrieved original papers written in English that focus on childhood DM research, using electronic bibliographic databases containing publications from the year 2000 until October 2018. For our final assessment, we retrieved 429 full-text articles and selected 95 articles, based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results: Our literature review suggests that childhood DM research undertaken in the Middle East has focused mainly on reporting retrospective review of case notes, a few prospective case studies, systemic reviews, questionnaire-based studies, and case reports. These reported studies have focused mostly on the incidence/prevalence of different types of DM in childhood. No studies report on the establishment of National Childhood Diabetes Registries. There is a lack of consolidated studies focusing on national epidemiology data of different types of childhood DM (such as NDM, T1DM, T2DM, MODY, and syndromic forms) and no studies reporting on clinical trials in children with DM.

Conclusions: Investing in basic and translational childhood diabetes research and encouraging collaborative studies, will bring enormous benefits financially, economically and socially for the Middle East region.

Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Middle East, Childhood, MODY, research, insulin resistance, prevention, epidemiology, registry

Keywords: Middle East, T1DM, T2DM, MODY, Childhood diabetes, Research, Insulin Resistance, prevention, Epidemiology, Registry, Neonatal diabetes mellitus

Received: 18 Dec 2018; Accepted: 04 Nov 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Saraswathi, Al-khawaga, Elkum and Hussain. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Khalid Hussain, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar, khussain@sidra.org