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Front. Energy Res. | doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2018.00112

FCM-based Modeling of Social Acceptance to Overcome Uncertainties in Establishing Waste Biorefinery Facilities

 Konstantinos Kokkinos1, Evangelia Lakioti2, Elpiniki Papageorgiou1,  Konstantinos Moustakas3* and  Vayos Karayannis2
  • 1University of Thessaly, Greece
  • 2Western Macedonia University Of Applied Science, Greece
  • 3National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Sustainable Waste Biorefinery Facilities (WBFs) represent multifactorial systems that necessitate the organization, cooperation and the acceptance of different social stakeholders. However, these attempts have become targets of environmental, social and legal oppositions despite their obvious economic benefits. The variety of ambivalent and heterogeneous external effects of such projects result in either local support or opposition to the facility, which in turn becomes a critical factor affecting facility location decisions, and subsequent success of a WBF. Research has shown that simple surveys do not sufficiently measure social acceptance of such endeavours, and in most cases, local community factors dominate other external valuable impacts. In the current study, a novel Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modeling approach is proposed in order to analyze the socio-economic implications and to overcome multiple uncertainties occurring in sustainable WBF development and implementation. The primary investigation relates to the factors that influence the development of organic or chemical treatment of waste by the local communities and the competent authorities. The determination of concepts involved in the FCM modeling depends on a hybrid approach where both experts’ opinion and statistical results from questionnaires distributed to stakeholders participate in the concept circumscription, thus identifying the centrality of each node in the model. Several steady state and dynamic analysis scenarios show the influence of driver concepts to receiver concepts on the social aspect FCM constructed.

Keywords: Fuzzy cognitive map (FCM), social acceptance, waste biorefinery facility (WBF), uncertainty, modeling

Received: 07 Aug 2018; Accepted: 04 Oct 2018.

Edited by:

Abdul-Sattar Nizami, Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz university, Saudi Arabia

Reviewed by:

Alok Satlewal, Indian Oil Corporation (India), India
Ta Yeong Wu, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia
Giuseppe Mancini, Università degli Studi di Catania, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Kokkinos, Lakioti, Papageorgiou, Moustakas and Karayannis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Konstantinos Moustakas, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece,