Skip to main content

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Front. Environ. Sci., 18 November 2022
Sec. Environmental Economics and Management
Volume 10 - 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.1044629

Green HRM and employee efficiency: The mediating role of employee motivation in emerging small businesses

  • 1Institute of Business, Management and Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • 2Research Center for Environment and Society, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
  • 3School of Public Administration, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
  • 4College of Engineering, IT & Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia
  • 5College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
  • 6Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
  • 7School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

The modern organizational structure expects that the human resource department should train the employees effectively to sustain the environment. This study aims to understand the role of green human resource management (GHRM) in the efficiency of organizations’ employees in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan. The questionnaire was developed on a five-point Likert scale to collect primary data from the target respondents, and the target respondents of this study were the employees of SMEs in Pakistan. The results of the study indicate that GHRM is an important tool to motivate and train employees, which ultimately increases the efficiency of employees. This study demonstrates that the SMEs in Pakistan need to consider the critical role of GHRM as it is emerging and provides reliable resources as per the organization’s requirements for better performance. This study provides recommendation for future studies to consider and contribute to the literature and to the practices of SMEs in Pakistan for the efficiency of their employees.

Introduction

Today’s world places considerable emphasis on employee productivity since it enhances a company’s competitive position in the market. However, it is also critical to remember that staff productivity is strongly tied to the effective teamwork and training that the organization’s human resource department has a responsibility to ensure in the organization. Significantly, Aboramadan (2020) demonstrated that most organizations failed to get the best human resource team that would work following the guidelines of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to enhance the experience of the employees and their performance in the organization. In this way, if the management of the organization is motivated and concerned about developing the efficiency of the employees, then the HRM department of the organization must work according to the pattern of GHRM (Ehmann et al., 2022; Kim & Kim, 2016). In the conclusion of Renwick, Redman, and Maguire (2008), GHRM is emerging and it can change the traditional working of the HR department in any organization for a sustainable environment. In Saudi Arabia, GHRM is practiced in different large and small organizations that are environmentally friendly (Faisal & Naushad, 2020), and SMEs are also benefiting from GHRM. To lower the cost of HR functions, the first step is to put more resources into technology, which can track information about employees and their health status (Naz, Jamshed, Nisar, & Nasir, 2021). In contrast, GHRM is not adopted in backward countries due to less training of the employees, and it is a challenge for the environment (Renwick et al., 2008).

GHRM refers to the human resource department’s working following the guidelines and policies for the sustainability of the environment and an eco-friendly working system (Bhatti et al., 2019). In modern times, it is expected that the human resource department is required to train the employees effectively to sustain the environment (Aboramadan, 2020). Employee motivation refers to the employees’ motivation to perform well and get training for effective teamwork to provide better output in the organization (Mafini & Dlodlo, 2014). The training of the employees is critical in the organization as it is important to ensure the employees are working in the best way by utilizing minimum resources to provide maximum output (Hina, Selvam, & Lowry, 2019). Similarly, Shareef and Atan (2018) demonstrated that teamwork is critical in the organization because it is carried out to achieve the single direction-oriented goal of the organization. Importantly, the efficiency of the employees is needed in the organization because it is a source of competitive advantage. The SMEs in Pakistan working with the GHRM concept are contributing to environmental sustainability because fewer resources are used (Muisyo, Su, Hashmi, Ho, & Julius, 2022). Modern technology has changed the traditional trends of work, and it has enhanced the improvement in the HR department (Faisal & Naushad, 2020). Meanwhile, the SMEs without green innovation acceptance concepts are still working on traditional patterns, and less use of technology is adopted in these organizations (I. Ahmad, Ullah, & Khan, 2021; Rubel, Kee, & Rimi, 2021).

In the existing literature, the influence of GHRM was checked in the context of employees’ behavior (Ababneh, 2021). Similarly, the influence of GHRM on green service behavior has been studied in the literature (Rubel et al., 2021). Moreover, GHRM is also discussed in the context of green competitive advantage (Muisyo, Qin, Ho, & Julius, 2021). The relationship between GHRM and green creativity in the hotel industry was also discussed in the earlier literature (Muisyo et al., 2022). However, no existing study in the literature has discussed the role of GHRM for employees’ training and employees’ teamwork (I. Ahmad et al., 2021; Naz et al., 2021). There is a significant gap in the literature related to the role of GHRM for employees’ training and employees’ motivation. Meanwhile, many earlier studies presented the importance of GHRM for employees’ best working and low turnover intentions (Renwick et al., 2008; Dumont, Shen, & Deng, 2017; Naz et al., 2021). Based on the grounds of existing research in the literature, the objective of this study is to determine to what extent GHRM plays a critical role in the efficiency of the organization’s employees in the SMEs of Pakistan. It is important to understand that no particular study was conducted to check the relationship between GHRM to develop teamwork effectiveness and employee training for the efficiency of the employees in the SMEs of Pakistan. In the earlier research, the role of employee motivation in the GHRM model was not taken into account (Ababneh, 2021). Furthermore, the relationship between employees’ motivation and employees’ working performance was not discussed widely in the existing studies in the context of GHRM. Therefore, this study’s theoretical framework is designed to provide detailed information related to the relationship between GHRM, employee motivation, employee training, teamwork, and employee efficiency. This study has been developed to contribute to the literature because no study was conducted to check the relationship of GHRM in the management of the employees of the SMEs in Pakistan.

No doubt, modern organizations have a goal of working in a sustainable way (Wheeler et al., 2012; Krause, Feiock, & Hawkins, 2016; Shahzad & Fareed, 2022), and many studies have been carried out to safeguard the environment from different perspectives (Shahzad, Bouri, Mokni, & Ajmi, 2021; Shahzad et al., 2022), but the role of GHRM is still underexplored. According to the recommendations of Faisal and Naushad (2020), the influence of GHRM should be tested on the motivation of employees. Therefore, this study is significant because it is designed to provide substantial theoretical and practical implications in the relationship of GHRM in the SMEs in Pakistan. Importantly, no earlier study was conducted to discuss this critical issue in the performance of SMEs in Pakistan that are facing challenges related to HRM and CSR. Indeed, every organization needs to improve the working efficiency of the employees in the organization with the help of the HR department because the modern market demands to work sustainably, as it helps to develop a competitive advantage in the target market. In this way, this study would provide significant implications that would be useful for managing the SMEs of Pakistan. Importantly, this study also provides recommendation for future studies to consider contributing to the literature and to the practices of businesses effectively.

Literature review

The role of HRM is critical to consider because it provides the guidelines and strategy for the employees to work effectively for the organization’s benefit (Mafini & Dlodlo, 2014). GHRM can influence the employees to work in an environmentally friendly way (Aboramadan, 2020). Notably, the concept of GHRM has emerged in the last decade because organizations are expected to perform well in eco-friendly and environment-friendly systems effectively. In this regard, it is the responsibility of the HRM to provide adequate training to the employees to ensure that they are working on the guidelines and procedures of the organization (Barreiro & Treglown, 2020). Accordingly, Ullah et al. (2022) stated that HRM is responsible for motivating the employees to work in an environment-friendly situation to make sure that the organization is working on the vision and mission that are developed for the values of CSR and green innovation and green performance. GHRM has a significant impact on the performance of employees (A. J. Khan, Ansari, Ahmed, & Malik, 2022; Muisyo et al., 2021). On one hand, organizations in America are working in an eco-friendly system to improve employee experience by providing the opportunity to work by getting effective training to ensure that all organizations are working on the CSR guidelines that are important to the principal for the sustainability of the organization in the target market (Mafini & Dlodlo, 2014; Empowerment, 2018). Employees with appropriate working ideas are influenced by GHRM because they welcome the new innovation to have changes in their learning (Muisyo et al., 2021). In the organizations that are working on the CSR guidelines, these organizations are improving the standard of the working environment because it is important to consider the employees’ training and proper output from the employees of the organization (Rita, Payangan, Rante, Tuhumena, & Erari, 2018; Hermawan, Thamrin, & Susilo, 2020). However, on the other hand, the organizations that badly failed to integrate the CSR values into HRM are not developing effectively (Rita et al., 2018; Hermawan et al., 2020). In modern times, GHRM work has become a responsibility of businesses (Naz et al., 2021). CSR provides the guideline for different organizations to work in an eco-friendly system to ensure that the working of the organization is based on the values and concerns of CSR to influence the employees of the organization for better performance (Singh & Misra, 2021; Ya, Tungsawad, Laohanan, & Pun-ngam, 2022). GHRM has changed the traditional practices of working for the employees of large corporations (Dumont et al., 2017; A. J. Khan, Shah, Bashir, & Iqbal, 2021).

The concept of the GHRM helps for an effective strategy in an organization’s HR department to develop a strategy useful for the proper training and motivation of the employee to make sure that the employees are working following the organization’s guidelines (Aboramadan, 2020). GHRM has changed organizational working in Saudi Arabia because the employees are collaborating and cooperating with management to establish these practices in organizations (Faisal & Naushad, 2020). Importantly, it is the management’s responsibility to train the HRM employees in an effective manner and provide them with the latest knowledge and equipment to operate the department in a reliable manner (Luu, 2018; Deng, Cherian, Ahmad, Scholz, & Samad, 2022; López-Cabarcos, Vázquez-Rodríguez, & Quiñoá-Piñeiro, 2022). The employees are more protected in the organization with GHRM because all of their information and health statuses are monitored properly (Muisyo et al., 2022). It is also noted that if the employees are motivated and are working on the guidelines provided by HRM, then a more accurate performance of the employees would be expected because they are always working hard to perform well in the organization (Bezner, Franklin, Lloyd, & Crixell, 2020), but they want the appropriate resources to get the work done in an effective way to provide maximum benefit to the organization as per the guidelines of CSR (Farid et al., 2019; Cheema, Afsar, & Javed, 2020). In the advanced and developed countries, organizations are bound to adopt GHRM practices because these organizations are contributing to the economic sustainability of the country (Rubel et al., 2021). Therefore, organizations need to consider the vital role of GHRM as it is emerging and provides reliable resources following the organization’s requirements for better performance.

In a business organization, the critical responsibility of the HR department is to train the employees effectively to get work done efficiently and effectively (Bhatti et al., 2019). In this regard, Aboramadan (2020) highlighted that the business organization’s responsibility is to consider the critical role of CSR because by the guidelines of CSR, it would be more effective for the organization to work for the sustainability of the environment and resources (Y. J. Kim & Kim, 2016). Notably, organizations that work on the guidelines of CSR (Ehmann et al., 2022) influence their employees to be productive and perform well in the organization following the strategies of the organization that are developed with the help of the mission of the organization (Cheema et al., 2020; Farid et al., 2019; W. G. Kim, McGinley, Choi, & Agmapisarn, 2020). Significantly, the responsibility of the HRM is to train the employees and motivate them to work in teams because when an employee works in a team, they will perform well. Indeed, in many organizations, the employees come from different cultures and with different values, and they have a different set of beliefs (Leung, Sun, Zhang, & Ding, 2021). The responsibility of the HRM is to motivate the employees effectively and get better output from them. The employees are from different cultures and values, and in this way, the HRM is required to consider its responsibility reasonably and ensure that teamwork is as per the values of the organization (S. Ahmad, Shafique, & Jamal, 2020). The influence of GHRM practices on employees has changed the traditional work of employees because now they are more motivated to perform in a better way (Aboramadan, 2020). The HR department with sustainable practices is more innovative at work for the employees (Aboramadan, 2020). The GHRM practices enhance the teamwork tasks because the employees from different departments collaborate with each other based on their data (Dumont et al., 2017).

In this way, the employees of the organization should be motivated to work in a team, and they should be rewarded for it because when the employees of the organization follow the ethical guidelines and standards, they not deviate from the vision and mission of the organization (Leung et al., 2021). Still, they would try their best to develop strategies regarding the values of the organization to develop their capacities in teamwork. Indeed, it is noted that when the organization provides an effective teamwork environment to the employees, the performance of the organization is increased, and it is for the competitive advantage of the organization (Mafini & Dlodlo, 2014). In the modern world, resources are available to every organization because of globalism as the trade barriers are reduced, and organizations have success in getting every kind of raw material and supporting material for the functionality of the organization (S. Ahmad et al., 2020). Importantly, in the modern world, the critical role of employees is important because the organization is developing a competitive advantage in the target market based on teamwork and the best employees. After all, the best employers are visionaries (Han, Wang, & Yan, 2019), and they provide appropriate services to the organization effectively by motivating the other employees to perform well (López-Cabarcos et al., 2022). However, on the other hand, in the organization that badly failed to perform well in the target market it is considered that teamwork was absent from the employee relationship of that organization. Teamwork in any organization enhances the capability of the employees because they are directly working to improve the projected task (Muisyo et al., 2022). The sustainability of the employee’s performance is also based on teamwork (Ehmann et al., 2022). The employees with low performance in the team also learn within the team because his/her performance is improved by working with other employees with expertise (Rubel et al., 2021).

Moreover, it is also noted that the effective teamwork and the working of the organization on the guidelines of the top management helps the management to develop CSR and perform well in the target market (Leila & Laily, 2011; Arraya, Pellissier, & Preto, 2015; Oshodin & Omoregbe, 2021). In this way, organizations are required to consider the vital role of teamwork and provide a sustainable environment for teamwork to ensure that the employees collaborate to perform well and get rewards (Yulianto, Sisko, & Hendriana, 2021). In the future, the success of the organizations in the target market will be based on effective teamwork (N. A. Khan, Khan, & Gul, 2019) because teamwork provides target-oriented guidelines in which the employees are working accordingly to achieve success collectively (Kotzé & Smit, 2008). In Figure 1, the theoretical framework of the study is presented. The employees who are motivated by the HR managers performing more in the organization (Ababneh, 2021). The lack of motivation by the HR manager can reduce the performance of employees in the organization (I. Ahmad et al., 2021). The relationship between HR managers and employees should be friendly, and employees should be motivated to reduce the intention of turnover (Rubel et al., 2021). The best organizations facilitate their employees to better work in teams. HR manager motivation has significant impact on employees’ performance (Aboramadan, 2020; Muisyo et al., 2021).

FIGURE 1
www.frontiersin.org

FIGURE 1. Theoretical framework.

H1: There is a relationship between green human resource management and employees’ motivation.

H2: There is a relationship between employee motivation and training.

H3: There is a relationship between green human resource management and employees’ training.

H4: There is a relationship between employee training and an employee’s efficiency.

H5: There is a relationship between green human resource management and teamwork.

H6: There is a relationship between teamwork and employees’ efficiency.

H7: There is a mediating role of employees’ motivation in the relationship between green human resource management and employee training.

Methodology

Research in the area of social sciences provides the primary data for data analysis. In this regard, this study uses the quantitative approach to collect the primary data from the targeted population on a five-point Likert scale. It is because a survey-based questionnaire for data collection is appropriate to collect data in less time with very little cost. In this study, the respondents were the employees of SMEs in Pakistan. All of the scales were adapted from previous studies. The questionnaire for this study integrated these items in the second section because the first section of the study was dedicated to a brief introduction of the study to the respondent. GHRM was measured using four items adopted from the study of Dumont et al. (2017): employee motivation by Rizwan, Tariq, Hassan, and Sultan (2014), the employee training scale adopted from the research of Chiaburu and Tekleab (2005), teamwork measured using four items from the work of Kakemam et al. (2021), and the employee efficiency scale from the study of Rizwan et al. (2014). The reliability and validity of these items were tested before being integrated into the questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha for all scale items was greater than 0.70, and composite reliability (CR) was above 0.70. Moreover, the data were collected from the target respondents by providing them with a questionnaire with an introduction to the study. The random sampling technique is used in this research because it is an appropriate way to collect data. The employees of different SMEs were contacted randomly, and the information was collected on the questionnaire. In this way, 500 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents to collect quantitative data with an expected response rate of 50%. However, after analyzing the questionnaires, 215 questionnaires were considered appropriate to analyze the data with the help of the software SmartPLS version 3. The respondents were praised for delivering thoughtful answers to the survey.

Study findings

Convergent validity

The convergent validity was checked using the PLS algorithm. As can be seen in Figure 1, no value is less than the minimum threshold of 0.60, and CR is above 0.70, as recommended by Fornell and Larcker (1981). Moreover, the values of average variance extracted (AVE) were checked, and all of the values were not less than 0.50, as recommended by Hair, Money, Samouel, and Page (2007). As a result, all of the values demonstrated the significant reliability and validity of the scale items used for this study (see Figure 2 and Table 1).

TABLE 1
www.frontiersin.org

TABLE 1. Factor loadings, Cronbach’s alpha, CR, and AVE.

FIGURE 2
www.frontiersin.org

FIGURE 2. PLS measurement model.

Discriminant validity

The discriminant validity test is to identify the distinction between the scale items used in the questionnaire to measure any variable. Along with reliability and validity, discriminant validity is also tested to check the scale difference in measuring the impact of the same variables. In this regard, PLS algorithm computations were used in this portion of the study to examine the discriminant validity of the scale items. However, the most reliable and recommended method by Gold, Malhotra, and Segars (2001), HTMT, was adopted to check the discriminant validity (Table 2). The results revealed that all of the values of discriminant validity were not greater than 0.90, as recommended by Gold et al. (2001). Therefore, the study has apparent discriminant validity for the scale items used to collect the data.

TABLE 2
www.frontiersin.org

TABLE 2. Discriminant validity (HTMT).

The PLS-SEM results

Hypothesis testing for this research was carried out using the PLS bootstrapping test. For a significant hypothesis, the recommended t-value is 1.96 and the p-value is 0.05 (Hair Jr, Sarstedt, Hopkins, & Kuppelwieser, 2014). First, the significance of H1 was investigated, and the results suggest that H1 is significant and that GHRM positively affects EM (β= 0.619, t = 13.286, p = 0.000). Second, the significance of H2 was determined, and the findings suggest that H2 is significant and that EM has a substantial effect on ET (β= 0.192, t = 3.918, and p = 0.000). Third, the relevance of H3 was determined. The findings show that H3 is important and that GHRM has a substantial effect on ET (β= 0.727, t = 16.478, and p = 0.000). Fourth, H4 was tested for significance. The results indicate that H4 is significant and that ET significantly influences EE (β= 0.520, t = 9.560, and p = 0.000). Fifth, the result of H5 indicates that GHRM has a positive significance on TW (β= 0.601, t = 13.856, and p = 0.000). Sixth, the result of H6 shows that TW significantly affects EE (β= 0.332, t = 5.707, and p = 0.000). In the end, the result of H7 indicates that EM significantly mediates the relationship between GHRM and ET (β= 0.098, t = 3.629, and p = 0.000), as indicated in Figure 3 and Table 3.

FIGURE 3
www.frontiersin.org

FIGURE 3. PLS structural model.

TABLE 3
www.frontiersin.org

TABLE 3. Result of direct and indirect relationships.

Discussion and conclusion

The findings of H1 show that GHRM and employees’ motivation are significantly correlated. The findings of this study are similar to the findings of earlier studies (Aboramadan, 2020; Muisyo et al., 2021). As per the results of H2, the relationship between employees’ motivation and employee training is significant. Moreover, the results of this hypothesis are in line with earlier studies (Dumont et al., 2017; Naz et al., 2021). Similarly, the results of H3 indicate the significant relationship between GHRM and employee training. The results of this hypothesis are also identical to the results of earlier studies (Faisal & Naushad, 2020; Muisyo et al., 2022). The results show a significant relationship between employee training and efficiency, and H4 is significant. Importantly, these findings validate the results of existing research in the body of literature (Ababneh, 2021; I. Ahmad et al., 2021; Renwick et al., 2008). The H5 results indicate the significant relationship between GHRM and teamwork. Meanwhile, these findings are lined up with the findings of previous research (Muisyo et al., 2021; Muisyo et al., 2022). Furthermore, the results of H6 show the significant relationship between teamwork and employee efficiency. Also, these findings are similar to the findings of previous work in the body of knowledge (Naz et al., 2021). Lastly, the results of H7 demonstrate the significant mediating role of employees’ motivation in the relationship between GHRM and employee training. This relationship was not tested in the earlier research. Therefore, it is a contribution to the body of knowledge that extends the framework of employees’ training. It is reasonable to understand that there is a critical tool for GHRM in Pakistan’s small and medium enterprises. To develop the employees’ efficiency, the management’s responsibility is to work effectively by adopting new tools and mechanisms for improving the efficiency of the employees for better development (Jang, Kim, & Lee, 2022; M. M. S. Khan & Ghayas, 2022; Qi, Liu, Wei, & Hu, 2019).

In the advanced and developed countries, small and medium enterprises are working based on the guidelines of CSR because by working on the guidelines of CSR (Farid et al., 2019; Latif et al., 2022; Murad, Bhatti, Bakar, Ahmad, & Khan, 2022), it would be more reasonable for the businesses to grow in the target market and develop a competitive advantage (Favero, 2020). However, in modern times, customers are mature and willing to become loyal to the business, that is, working for the eco-friendly system (Avotra, Chenyun, Yongmin, Lijuan, & Nawaz, 2021). The function of the corporate organization’s management is to develop an effective GHRM for the training and the teamwork environment of the employees to provide a reasonable way to work in the target market (Phina, Arinze, Chidi, & Chukwuma, 2018). Significantly, in the study by Kakemam et al. (2021), the organizations that work on the guidelines of CSR are the top-ranked organizations in developed countries. Therefore, the responsibility of the critical stakeholder related to the business is to ensure that the small and medium enterprises in Pakistan are working in an eco-friendly system with the development and proper implementation of GHRM to develop a competitive advantage by improving the efficiency of the employees.

Research implications

This study provides essential theoretical and practical implications that are worthy of consideration when examining the relationship between GHRM and employee productivity in Pakistan’s small and medium enterprises. On one hand, this study emphasizes that corporate management needs to consider the role of GHRM since it helps to increase employee performance and efficiency. Indeed, there was a gap in the literature as no earlier study was conducted to determine the relationship of GHRM as an emerging variable with the efficiency of the employees in the SMEs in Pakistan. In this way, this study highlights that the organization’s vision and mission should be according to the values of CSR and GHRM. Significantly, this study highlights the relationship between a different variable that is integrated into the study’s theoretical framework, and this relationship would be effective for future studies to consider in a single document.

In contrast, the link between GHRM and employee productivity in the workplace is required to consider the study’s substantial practical implications. No doubt, the objective of every organization is to provide better output with the help of an employee. Therefore, if the employees of the organization are trained with the concept of GHRM, then more productivity in the employees would be developed, which would be beneficial for the prosperity and competitive advantage of the organization in the modern mature market of Pakistan. Therefore, the responsibility of the management of SMEs in Pakistan is to consider the critical role of GHRM in developing the capability of their employees for better performance. Importantly, considering the conclusion of the study would be effective for the management to design the working environment in the best way for developing the efficiency of the employees of the organization.

Limitations

There are some limitations to this research. To begin with, this research is based on the cross-sectional data collected on the questionnaire that has limited importance for monitoring the GHRM capacities. Therefore, future research may focus on monitoring the GHRM activities in different organizations in the long term to validate the results of this study. Second, this research has determined the role of employees’ motivation; however, the employees can be motivated with performance and rewards. Hence, future research may focus on performance and reward factors to determine the findings and contribute to the framework of an employee’s performance. Finally, this study is limited as it discusses a single aspect of GHRM for the employees. Moreover, future research should enhance the literature by determining the impact of sustainability in human resource management and its impact on the competitive advantage of the organization.

Data availability statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/Supplementary Material; further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Ethics statement

Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. Written informed consent from the participants was not required to participate in this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements.

Author contributions

Conceptualization, AK; methodology, AK and WU; software, WU; validation, JI and AS; formal analysis, WU; investigation, WU; resources, WU and JI; data curation, WU; writing—original draft preparation, AK, WU, and AS; writing—review and editing, AK and MT; visualization, WU; and supervision, MT and JI.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors, and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

References

Ababneh, O. M. A. (2021). How do green HRM practices affect employees’ green behaviors? The role of employee engagement and personality attributes. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 64 (7), 1204–1226. doi:10.1080/09640568.2020.1814708

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Aboramadan, M. (2020). The effect of green HRM on employee green behaviors in higher education: The mediating mechanism of green work engagement. Int. J. Organ. Analysis 30, 7–23. doi:10.1108/ijoa-05-2020-2190

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ahmad, I., Ullah, K., and Khan, A. (2021). The impact of green HRM on green creativity: Mediating role of pro-environmental behaviors and moderating role of ethical leadership style. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 33, 3789–3821. doi:10.1080/09585192.2021.1931938

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ahmad, S., Shafique, O., and Jamal, W. N. (2020). Impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on banks’ financial performance and the mediating role of employees’ satisfaction and loyalty in Pakistan. J. Account. Finance Emerg. Econ. 6 (3), 765–774. doi:10.26710/jafee.v6i3.1361

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Arraya, M. A., Pellissier, R., and Preto, I. (2015). Team goal-setting involves more than only goal-setting. Sport, Bus. Manag. Int. J. 5, 157–174. doi:10.1108/sbm-11-2012-0046

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Avotra, A. A. R. N., Chenyun, Y., Yongmin, W., Lijuan, Z., and Nawaz, A. (2021). Conceptualizing the state of the art of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in green construction and its nexus to sustainable development. Front. Environ. Sci. 9, 541. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2021.774822

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Barreiro, C. A., and Treglown, L. (2020). What makes an engaged employee? A facet-level approach to trait emotional intelligence as a predictor of employee engagement. Personality Individ. Differ. 159, 109892. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2020.109892

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bezner, J. R., Franklin, K. A., Lloyd, L. K., and Crixell, S. H. (2020). Effect of group health behaviour change coaching on psychosocial constructs associated with physical activity among University employees. Int. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 18 (1), 93–107. doi:10.1080/1612197x.2018.1462232

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bhatti, M. A., Alshagawi, M., Zakariya, A., and Juhari, A. S. (2019). Do multicultural faculty members perform well in higher educational institutions? Examining the roles of psychological diversity climate, HRM practices and personality traits (big five). Eur. J. Train. Dev. 43 (1/2), 166–187. doi:10.1108/EJTD-08-2018-0081

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cheema, S., Afsar, B., and Javed, F. (2020). Employees' corporate social responsibility perceptions and organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: The mediating roles of organizational identification and environmental orientation fit. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Environ. Manag. 27 (1), 9–21. doi:10.1002/csr.1769

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Chiaburu, D. S., and Tekleab, A. G. (2005). Individual and contextual influences on multiple dimensions of training effectiveness. J. Eur. industrial Train. 29, 604–626. doi:10.1108/03090590510627085

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Deng, Y., Cherian, J., Ahmad, N., Scholz, M., and Samad, S. (2022). Conceptualizing the role of target-specific environmental transformational leadership between corporate social responsibility and pro-environmental behaviors of hospital employees. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 19 (6), 3565. doi:10.3390/ijerph19063565

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Dumont, J., Shen, J., and Deng, X. (2017). Effects of green HRM practices on employee workplace green behavior: The role of psychological green climate and employee green values. Hum. Resour. Manage. 56 (4), 613–627. doi:10.1002/hrm.21792

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ehmann, P., Beavan, A., Spielmann, J., Mayer, J., Altmann, S., Ruf, L., et al. (2022). Perceptual-cognitive performance of youth soccer players in a 360°-environment–Differences between age groups and performance levels. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 59, 102120. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.102120

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Empowerment, W. E., Yassine, O., and Masa’deh, R. (2018). A review of literature on the associations among employee empowerment, work engagement and employee performance. Mod. Appl. Sci. 12 (11), 313–329. doi:10.5539/mas.v12n11p313

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Faisal, S., and Naushad, M. (2020). An overview of green HRM practices among SMEs in Saudi Arabia. Entrepreneursh. Sustain. issues 8 (2), 1228–1244. doi:10.9770/jesi.2020.8.2(73)

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Farid, T., Iqbal, S., Ma, J., Castro-González, S., Khattak, A., and Khan, M. K. (2019). Employees’ perceptions of CSR, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating effects of organizational justice. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16 (10), 1731. doi:10.3390/ijerph16101731

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Favero, G. (2020). Consumer awareness of CSR in the aviation industry.

Google Scholar

Fornell, C., and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J. Mark. Res. 18 (1), 39–50. doi:10.2307/3151312

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., and Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. J. Manag. Inf. Syst. 18 (1), 185–214. doi:10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., and Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European business review 26 (2), 106–121. doi:10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hair, J. F., Money, A. H., Samouel, P., and Page, M. (2007). Research methods for business. Education+ Training 49 (4), 336–337.

Google Scholar

Han, Z., Wang, Q., and Yan, X. (2019). How responsible leadership motivates employees to engage in organizational citizenship behavior for the environment: A double-mediation model. Sustainability 11 (3), 605. doi:10.3390/su11030605

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hermawan, H., Thamrin, H. M., and Susilo, P. (2020). Organizational citizenship behavior and performance: The role of employee engagement. J. Asian Finance, Econ. Bus. 7 (12), 1089–1097. doi:10.13106/jafeb.2020.vol7.no12.1089

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hina, S., Selvam, D. D. D. P., and Lowry, P. B. (2019). Institutional governance and protection motivation: Theoretical insights into shaping employees’ security compliance behavior in higher education institutions in the developing world. Comput. Secur. 87, 101594. doi:10.1016/j.cose.2019.101594

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jang, S., Kim, B., and Lee, S. (2022). Impact of corporate social (ir) responsibility on volume and valence of online employee reviews: Evidence from the tourism and hospitality industry. Tour. Manag. 91, 104501. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2022.104501

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kakemam, E., Hajizadeh, A., Azarmi, M., Zahedi, H., Gholizadeh, M., and Roh, Y. S. (2021). Nurses' perception of teamwork and its relationship with the occurrence and reporting of adverse events: A questionnaire survey in teaching hospitals. J. Nurs. Manag. 29 (5), 1189–1198. doi:10.1111/jonm.13257

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Khan, A. J., Ansari, M. A. A., Ahmed, T., and Malik, A. A. (2022). Green human resource practices: A sustainable approach to increase employee performance. iRASD J. Manag. 4 (1), 17–25. doi:10.52131/jom.2022.0401.0058

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Khan, A. J., Shah, S. Z. A., Bashir, F., and Iqbal, J. (2021). Antecedents and consequences of green human resource management in oil and gas companies of Pakistan. sbsee. 3 (3), 339–351. doi:10.26710/sbsee.v3i3.1985

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Khan, M. M. S., and Ghayas, M. M. (2022). Impact of authentic leadership on employee engagement in the banking sector of Karachi. Int. J. Bus. Perform. Manag. 23 (1-2), 90–98. doi:10.1504/ijbpm.2022.10042798

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Khan, N. A., Khan, A. N., and Gul, S. (2019). Relationship between perception of organizational politics and organizational citizenship behavior: Testing a moderated mediation model. Asian Bus. manage. 18 (2), 122–141. doi:10.1057/s41291-018-00057-9

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kim, W. G., McGinley, S., Choi, H.-M., and Agmapisarn, C. (2020). Hotels’ environmental leadership and employees’ organizational citizenship behavior. Int. J. Hosp. Manag. 87, 102375. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.102375

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kim, Y. J., and Kim, E. S. (2016). Evidence-based HRM: A global forum for empirical scholarship. Paper presented at the.Exploring the interrelationship between public service motivation and corruption theories.

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kotzé, L., and Smit, A. (2008). Personal financial literacy and personal debt management: The potential relationship with new venture creation. South. Afr. J. Entrepreneursh. Small Bus. Manag. 1 (1), 35–50. doi:10.4102/sajesbm.v1i1.11

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Krause, R. M., Feiock, R. C., and Hawkins, C. V. (2016). The administrative organization of sustainability within local government. J. public Adm. Res. theory 26 (1), 113–127.

Google Scholar

Latif, B., Ong, T. S., Meero, A., Abdul Rahman, A. A., and Ali, M. (2022). Employee-Perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee pro-environmental behavior (PEB): The moderating role of CSR skepticism and CSR authenticity. Sustainability 14 (3), 1380. doi:10.3390/su14031380

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Leila, F., and Laily, H. P. (2011). Toward a framework of determinants of financial management and financial problems among University students. Afr. J. Bus. Manag. 5 (22), 9600–9606.

Google Scholar

Leung, X. Y., Sun, J., Zhang, H., and Ding, Y. (2021). How the hotel industry attracts generation Z employees: An application of social capital theory. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag. 49, 262–269. doi:10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.09.021

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

López-Cabarcos, M. Á., Vázquez-Rodríguez, P., and Quiñoá-Piñeiro, L. M. (2022). An approach to employees’ job performance through work environmental variables and leadership behaviours. J. Bus. Res. 140, 361–369. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.11.006

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Luu, T. T. (2018). Building employees’ organizational citizenship behavior for the environment: The role of environmentally-specific servant leadership and a moderated mediation mechanism. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 31, 406–426. doi:10.1108/ijchm-07-2017-0425

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mafini, C., and Dlodlo, N. (2014). The relationship between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction amongst employees in a public organisation. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 40 (1), 1–13. doi:10.4102/sajip.v40i1.1166

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Muisyo, P. K., Qin, S., Ho, T. H., and Julius, M. M. (2021). The effect of green HRM practices on green competitive advantage of manufacturing firms. J. Manuf. Technol. Manag. 33, 22–40. doi:10.1108/jmtm-10-2020-0388

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Muisyo, P. K., Su, Q., Hashmi, H. B. A., Ho, T. H., and Julius, M. M. (2022). The role of green HRM in driving hotels' green creativity. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 34, 1331–1352. doi:10.1108/ijchm-07-2021-0833

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Murad, M., Bhatti, A., Bakar, A., Ahmad, R., and Khan, A. J. (2022). Exploring the relationship between effective management & social equity: A CSR perspective. J. S. Asian Stud. 10 (1), 103–111. doi:10.33687/jsas.010.01.4180

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Naz, S., Jamshed, S., Nisar, Q. A., and Nasir, N. (2021). Green HRM, psychological green climate and pro-environmental behaviors: An efficacious drive towards environmental performance in China. Curr. Psychol., 1–16. doi:10.1007/s12144-021-01412-4

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Oshodin, E. A., and Omoregbe, O. (2021). Supply chain management, competitive advantage and organizational performance in the Nigerian manufacturing sector. Oradea J. Bus. Econ. 6 (2), 57–68. doi:10.47535/1991ojbe129

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Phina, O. N., Arinze, A. S., Chidi, O. F., and Chukwuma, E. D. (2018). The effect of teamwork on employee performance: A study of medium scale industries in anambra state. Int. J. Contemp. Appl. Res. 5 (2), 174–194.

Google Scholar

Qi, L., Liu, B., Wei, X., and Hu, Y. (2019). Impact of inclusive leadership on employee innovative behavior: Perceived organizational support as a mediator. PLoS One 14 (2), e0212091. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0212091

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Renwick, D., Redman, T., and Maguire, S. (2008). Green HRM: A review, process model, and research agenda. Univ. Sheff. Manag. Sch. Discuss. Pap. 1 (1), 1–46.

Google Scholar

Rita, M., Payangan, O. R., Rante, Y., Tuhumena, R., and Erari, A. (2018). Moderating effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the effect of organizational commitment, transformational leadership and work motivation on employee performance. Int. J. Law Manag. 60, 953–964. doi:10.1108/ijlma-03-2017-0026

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rizwan, M., Tariq, M., Hassan, R., and Sultan, A. (2014). A comparative analysis of the factors effecting the employee motivation and employee performance in Pakistan. ijhrs. 4 (3), 35. doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v4i3.5873

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rubel, M. R. B., Kee, D. M. H., and Rimi, N. N. (2021). The influence of green HRM practices on green service behaviors: The mediating effect of green knowledge sharing. Empl. Relat. Int. J. 43, 996–1015. doi:10.1108/er-04-2020-0163

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Shahzad, F., Bouri, E., Mokni, K., and Ajmi, A. N. (2021). Energy, agriculture, and precious metals: Evidence from time-varying Granger causal relationships for both return and volatility. Resour. Policy 74, 102298. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2021.102298

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Shahzad, F., and Fareed, Z. (2022). Examining the relationship between fiscal decentralization, renewable energy intensity, and carbon footprints in Canada by using the newly constructed bootstrap Fourier Granger causality test in quantile. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 1–10. doi:10.1007/s11356-022-22513-y

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Shahzad, F., Fareed, Z., Wan, Y., Wang, Y., Zahid, Z., and Irfan, M. (2022). Examining the asymmetric link between clean energy intensity and carbon dioxide emissions: The significance of quantile-on-quantile method. Energy & Environment, 0958305X221102049.

Google Scholar

Shareef, R. A., and Atan, T. (2018). The influence of ethical leadership on academic employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention: Mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Manag. Decis. 57, 583–605. doi:10.1108/md-08-2017-0721

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Singh, K., and Misra, M. (2021). Linking corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational performance: The moderating effect of corporate reputation. Eur. Res. Manag. Bus. Econ. 27 (1), 100139. doi:10.1016/j.iedeen.2020.100139

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ullah, M., Alam, W., Khan, Y., Joseph, V., Farooq, S. U., and Noreen, S. (2022). Role of leadership in enhancing employees performance: A case of board of intermediate and secondary education, peshawar. J. Contemp. Issues Bus. Gov. 28 (1).

Google Scholar

Wheeler, Q. D., Knapp, S., Stevenson, D., Stevenson, J., Blum, S. D., Boom, B., et al. (2012). Mapping the biosphere: Exploring species to understand the origin, organization and sustainability of biodiversity. Syst. Biodivers. 10 (1), 1–20. doi:10.1080/14772000.2012.665095

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ya, Y., Tungsawad, S., Laohanan, S., and Pun-ngam, H. (2022). The influence of corporate social responsibility on the image of companies doing csr in kunming. Int. J. Econ. Bus. Account. Res. (IJEBAR) 6 (1).

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Yulianto, Y., Sisko, A., and Hendriana, E. (2021). The stimulus of impulse buying behavior on E-commerce shopping festival: A moderated-mediated analysis. J. Bus. Manag. Rev. 2 (10), 692–714. doi:10.47153/jbmr210.2152021

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Keywords: green human resource management, employee motivation, employee training, team work, employee efficiency, sustainable goals

Citation: Khan AJ, Ul Hameed W, Iqbal J, Shah AA, Tariq MAUR and Bashir F (2022) Green HRM and employee efficiency: The mediating role of employee motivation in emerging small businesses. Front. Environ. Sci. 10:1044629. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2022.1044629

Received: 14 September 2022; Accepted: 26 October 2022;
Published: 18 November 2022.

Edited by:

Farrukh Shahzad, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, China

Reviewed by:

Muhammad Sibt E. Ali, Zhengzhou University, China
Le Wang, North China Electric Power University, China
Sami Ullah, Shandong University, China

Copyright © 2022 Khan, Ul Hameed, Iqbal, Shah, Tariq and Bashir. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman Tariq, atiq.tariq@yahoo.com

Download