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Systematic Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Ecol. Evol. | doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00339

Stoichiometric Traits Vary Widely Within Species: A Meta-analysis of Common Garden Experiments

  • 1Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Netherlands
  • 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (SI), Panama
  • 3Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Australia
  • 4W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, College of Natural Science, Michigan State University, United States
  • 5Department of Biology, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, United States
  • 6Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, United States
  • 7University of California, Santa Cruz, United States

‘Ecological stoichiometry’, a framework that focuses explicitly on the balances and flows of chemical elements within and between organisms and ecosystems, has provided crucial insights into many biological patterns and processes. Despite the proliferation of stoichiometrically-focused studies in recent decades and recognition of the potential for rapid evolution of stoichiometric traits, the prevalence of genetic variation in stoichiometric traits within species remains unclear. We compiled data from 30 published common garden studies of a broad range of taxa (including invertebrates, vertebrates and autotrophs) to examine how genetic variation influences the acquisition, assimilation, allocation (AAA), composition, and excretion of elements. To quantify the extent of genetic variation for a given trait we calculated the absolute mean response ratio from pairwise comparisons of populations within the same common garden (820 population and 708 genotype comparisons). We observed substantial intraspecific variation of stoichiometric traits across populations and among genotypes; however, the magnitude of variation was greater in AAA traits (effect sizes of 20% and 164% for population and genotype contrasts, respectively) and excretion (effect sizes of 52% and 23%) than in content of carbon (2.1% and 3.1%) and nitrogen (4.5% and 24%). These results suggest that the content of some elements may be evolutionarily constrained relative to AAA traits that determine the processing of these elements, and that a sole focus on elemental content would underestimate the importance of intraspecific genetic variation, particularly within populations. Across many trait types the variation was greater among genotypes within a population than across populations. Finally, we compared pairs of populations from environments with different phosphorus (P) availability to pairs of populations with similar P availability. Genetic variation in the traits measured was similar regardless of the P environment from which genotypes were isolated, suggesting that differences in elemental availability across environments do not necessarily drive enhanced trait divergence. Overall, our results highlight the substantial amount of intraspecific variation in stoichiometric traits and underscore the potential importance of intraspecific variation in driving ecological and evolutionary processes.

Keywords: Elemental phenotype, Biological stoichiometry, evolution, eco-evolutionary dynamics, Phosphorus, Organismal stoichiometry, Nutrient excretion, intraspecific variation

Received: 22 Jul 2019; Accepted: 23 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Lemmen, Butler, Koffel, Rudman and Symons. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Kimberley D. Lemmen, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, Netherlands,