Betaine Inhibits Interleukin-1β Production and Release: Potential Mechanisms
- 1Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, Institute of Subtropical Animal Nutrition and Feed，College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, China
- 2Institute of Subtropical Agriculture (CAS), China
Betaine is a critical nutrient for mammal health, and has been found to alleviate inflammation by lowering interleukin (IL)-1β secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms by which betaine inhibits IL-1β secretion remain to be uncovered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the mechanisms of betaine in IL-1β production and release. For IL-1β production, betaine affects canonical and non-canonical inflammasome-mediated processing of IL-1β through signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, NLRP3 and caspase-8/11. For IL-1β release, betaine inhibits IL-1β release through blocking the exocytosis of IL-1β-containing secretory lysosomes, reducing the shedding of IL-1β-containing plasma membrane microvesicles, suppressing the exocytosis of IL-1β-containing exosomes, and attenuating the passive efflux of IL-1β across hyperpermeable plasma membrane during pyroptotic cell death, which are associated with ERK1/2/PLA2 and caspase-8/A-SMase signaling pathways. Collectively, this review highlights the anti-inflammatory property of betaine by inhibiting the production and release of IL-1β, and indicates the potential application of betaine supplementation as an adjuvant therapy in various inflammatory diseases associating with IL-1β secretion.
Keywords: Betaine, caspase-8, IL-1β, Inflammation, Inflammasome
Received: 19 Aug 2018;
Accepted: 29 Oct 2018.
Edited by:Alexander G. Haslberger, Universität Wien, Austria
Reviewed by:Hailong Song, University of Missouri, United States
Zhuoran Yin, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Ren and Xia. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Wenkai Ren, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, Institute of Subtropical Animal Nutrition and Feed，College of Animal Science, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong Province, China, email@example.com