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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01616

Ginseng Stem-leaf Saponins (GSLS) and Selenium (Se) Work Synergistically to Enhance Immune Responses Induced by Attenuated Pseudorabies Virus Vaccine

  • 1Zhejiang University, China

Pseudorabies is an important infectious disease of pigs and immunization using attenuated pseudorabies virus (aPrV) vaccine is a routine practice to control this disease in swine herds. This study was aimed to evaluate the physiological saline solution (PSS) containing ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) and sodium selenite (Se) as a vaccine diluent for its enhancement of immune response to aPrV vaccine. The results showed that aPrV vaccine diluted with PSS containing GSLS-Se significantly enhanced the immune responses when compared to the vaccine diluted with PSS alone. GSLS-Se promoted higher production of gB-specific IgG, IgG2a and IgG1, secretion of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12), up-regulated the T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA expression when compared to the vaccine diluted with PSS alone. In addition, cytolytic activity of NK cells, lymphocyte proliferative response to Con A, LPS and inactivated PrV as well as CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also significantly increased by GSLS-Se. More importantly, GSLS-Se conferred a much higher resistance to a field virulent pseudorabies virus (fPrV) challenge in mice inoculated with aPrV vaccine. In addition, GSLS-Se significantly promoted cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) production and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) expression of murine macrophages cell line RAW 264.7 in vitro. As the present study was conducted by experiments on mice, further study is required to evaluate the solution of PSS containing GSLS-Se as a vaccine diluent to improve the vaccination against PrV in pigs.

Keywords: Ginseng stem-leaf saponins, Selenium, adjuvant, Immunity, attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine

Received: 30 Jan 2019; Accepted: 28 Jun 2019.

Edited by:

Rajko Reljic, St George's, University of London, United Kingdom

Reviewed by:

Juraj Ivanyi, King's College London, United Kingdom
Alastair Copland, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom  

Copyright: © 2019 Wang, Cui, Maqbool, Yuan, He, Guan, Xu and Hu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Songhua Hu, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China,