Liver-Mediated Adaptive Immune Tolerance
- 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, China
- 2Division of Molecular Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, China
The liver is an immunologically-tolerant organ, equipped with the unique property of limiting hypersensitivity to food-derived antigens and bacterial products through the portal vein, and feasibly accepting liver allografts. The adaptive immune response is a major branch of the immune system that is responsible for inducing organ/tissue-localized and systematic responses against pathogens and tumors, while promoting self-tolerance. It has previously been reported that persistent liver infection with a virus or another pathogen typically results in liver tolerance, a unique feature of the liver. Due to the liver’s immunosuppressive microenvironment, hepatic adaptive immune cells become readily tolerogenic, promoting the death of effector cells and the ‘education’ of regulatory cells. The above mechanisms may result in the clonal deletion, exhaustion, or inhibition of peripheral T cells, which are key players in the adaptive immune response. It is believed that these tolerance mechanisms are responsible for almost all liver diseases. However, liver-mediated T cell dysfunction can be reversed through checkpoint immunotherapy or the modulation of hepatic innate immune cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms involved in hepatic adaptive immune tolerance, the liver diseases that arise as a result of this tolerance and how it can be overcome by therapeutic intervention. (200 words)
Keywords: liver tolerance, T cell dysfunction, T cell tolerance, Immune Regulation, innate cell dysfunction
Received: 24 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 10 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Zheng and Tian. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Zhigang Tian, Division of Molecular Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, Anhui Province, China, email@example.com