Pf bacteriophage and their Impact on Pseudomonas Virulence, Mammalian Immunity, and Chronic Infections
- 1University of Montana, United States
- 2Stanford University Medical Center, United States
- 3Stanford University, United States
Pf bacteriophage are temperate phages that infect the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major cause of chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and other settings. Pf and other temperate phages have evolved complex, mutualistic relationships with their bacterial hosts that impact both bacterial phenotypes and chronic infection. We and others have reported that Pf phages are a virulence factor that promote the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections in animal models and are associated with worse skin and lung infections in humans. Here we review the biology of Pf phages and what is known about its contributions to pathogenesis and clinical disease. First, we review the structure, genetics, and epidemiology of Pf phages. Next, we address the diverse and surprising ways that Pf phages contribute to P. aeruginosa phenotypes including effects on biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and motility. Then, we cover data indicating that Pf phages suppress mammalian immunity at sites of bacterial infection. Finally, we discuss recent literature implicating Pf in chronic P. aeruginosa infections in CF and other settings. Together, these reports suggest that Pf bacteriophage have direct effects on P. aeruginosa infections and that temperate phages are an exciting frontier in microbiology, immunology, and human health.
Keywords: Bacteriophage, Cystic Fibrosis, Pneumonia, wound, Pseudomonas, Microbiology, immunology, Infection, PF, Lung, Inovirus
Received: 12 Nov 2019;
Accepted: 30 Jan 2020.
Copyright: © 2020 Secor, Burgener, Kinnersley, Jennings, Roman-Cruz, Popescu, Van Belleghem, Haddock, Copeland, Michaels, De Vries, Chen, Pourtois, Wheeler, Milla and Bollyky. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Paul L. Bollyky, Stanford University, Stanford, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org