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Front. Mar. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00216

Common environment policies in different sustainability paradigms: evidence from the Baltic, Adriatic and Black Seas

  • 1Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy
  • 2Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece

We develop a model for four sustainability paradigms (weak sustainability, a-growth, de-growth, strong sustainability) within a single framework that accounts for responsibility for nature and future generations and for intra- and inter-generational equality. The model is applied in three case studies: the Baltic, the Adriatic and the Black Sea with the aim to identify feasible sustainability solutions for shared seas under alternative sources of environmental pressure and cooperation strategies. The Baltic Sea is analysed as an example of pollution from agriculture, the Adriatic Sea as an example of over-exploitation of fish in fishery, and the Black Sea as an example of pollution from industry. Empirical results show that different cooperation strategies are feasible in each case and that they yield different results in different context. Also welfare implications vary between different cooperation strategies. The main policy implication of the analysis is twofold. Environmental conservation must be preferred to environmental innovation, where both intra- and inter-generational equity concerns are unessential. The choice of a different sustainability approaches must be combined with the feasibility of the differently required management institutions, while considerations of the sectoral sources of environmental pressure are essential.

Keywords: sustainability, Equity, Marine Strategy Framework, Adriatic sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea

Received: 05 Jan 2018; Accepted: 30 May 2018.

Edited by:

Rachel G. Tiller, SINTEF, Norway

Reviewed by:

Athanasios Kampas, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
Encarna Esteban, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain  

Copyright: © 2018 Zagonari, Tsani, Mavrikis and Koundouri. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Fabio Zagonari, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna, Italy,