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Front. Mar. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00221

Assessing the Influence of Water Constituents on the Radiative Heating of Laptev Sea Shelf Waters

 Mariana A. Soppa1*,  Vasileios Pefanis1, Sebastian Hellmann2,  Svetlana N. Losa1, Jens Hölemann1,  Markus A. Janout1, Fedor Martynov3,  Birgit Heim1,  Tilman Dinter1, Vladimir Rozanov4 and  Astrid Bracher1, 4
  • 1Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Germany
  • 2Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
  • 3Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Russia
  • 4Institute for Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Germany

The presence of optically active water constituents is known to attenuate the light penetration in the ocean and impact the ocean heat content. Here, we investigate the influence of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) on the radiative heating of the Laptev Sea shelf waters. The Laptev Sea region is heavily influenced by the Lena River, one of the largest river systems in the Arctic region. We simulate the radiative heating by using a coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model (RTM) and \textit{in situ} measurements from the TRANSDRIFT XVII expedition carried out in September 2010. The results indicate that CDOM and TSM have significant influence on the energy budget of the Laptev Sea shelf waters, absorbing most of the solar energy in the first \replaced{two meters}{2 m} of the water column. In the station with the highest CDOM absorption (a\textsubscript{CDOM}(443) = 1.77 m\textsuperscript{-1}) \replaced{$\sim$43}{42.6}\% more energy is absorbed in the surface layer compared to the station with the lowest a\textsubscript{CDOM}(443) ($\sim$0.2 m\textsuperscript{-1}), which translates to an increased \replaced{radiative}{radiant} heating rate of \replaced{$\sim$0.6}{0.57}\textdegree{}C\deleted[remark=]{/day}. The increased absorbed energy by the water constituents also implies in increased sea ice melt rate and changes in the surface heat fluxes to the atmosphere. By \replaced{using}{combining} satellite remote sensing and RTM we \replaced{quantify}{present} the spatial distribution of the radiative heating in the Laptev Sea for a typical summer day. The tools developed here \added[remark=]{(the combined use of satellite remote sensing, RT modeling and \textit{in situ} observations)} and tested in our case study can be used to improve the parameterizations of coupled atmosphere-ocean models to assess the \replaced{role}{feedback} of the ocean \added[remark=]{in the effect of} Arctic \replaced{a}{A}mplification.

Keywords: Radiative transfer modelling (RTM), remote sensing, Heat budget, MERIS, optically active water constituents, CDOM, TSM, Arctic

Received: 26 Oct 2018; Accepted: 09 Apr 2019.

Edited by:

Sergio M. Vallina, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Spain

Reviewed by:

Moritz Mathis, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Germany
Gang Li, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (CAS), China  

Copyright: © 2019 Soppa, Pefanis, Hellmann, Losa, Hölemann, Janout, Martynov, Heim, Dinter, Rozanov and Bracher. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Ms. Mariana A. Soppa, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Bremerhaven, Germany, msoppa@awi.de