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Photomedicine

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Front. Med. | doi: 10.3389/fmed.2018.00166

A perspective on the interplay of ultraviolet-radiation, skin microbiome and skin resident memory TCRαβ+ cells

 VijayKumar Patra1, 2, 3, Léo Laoubi1, Jean-François Nicolas1, 4, Marc Vocanson1* and  Peter Wolf3*
  • 1CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, France
  • 2Center for Medical Research, Medizinische Universität Graz, Austria
  • 3Research Unit for Photodermatology, Department of Dermatology, Medizinische Universität Graz, Austria
  • 4Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, France

The human skin is known to be inhabited by diverse microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and mites. This microbiota exerts a protective role against infections by promoting immune development and inhibiting pathogenic microbes to colonize skin. One of the factors having an intense effect on the skin and its resident microbes is ultraviolet-radiation (UV-R). UV-R can promote or inhibit the growth of microbes on the skin and modulate the immune system which can be either favorable or harmful. Among potential UV-R targets, skin resident memory T cells (TRM) stand as well positioned immune cells at the forefront within the skin. Both CD4+ or CD8+ αβ TRM cells residing permanently in peripheral tissues have been shown to play prominent roles in providing accelerated and long-lived specific immunity, tissue homeostasis, wound repair. Nevertheless, their response upon UV-R exposure or signals from microbiome are poorly understood compared to resident TCRγδ cells. Skin TRM survive for long periods of time and are exposed to innumerable antigens during lifetime. The interplay of TRM with skin residing microbes may be crucial in pathophysiology of various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and polymorphic light eruption. In this article, we share our perspective about how UV-R may directly shape the persistence, phenotype, specificity, and function of skin TRM; and moreover, weather UV-R alters barrier function, leading to microbial-specific skin TRM, disrupting the healthy balance between skin microbiome and skin immune cells, and resulting in chronic inflammation and diseased skin.

Keywords: Skin microbiome, ultraviolet radiation, resident memory T cells, Inflammation, immune suppression, Phototherapy, photomedicine

Received: 28 Feb 2018; Accepted: 11 May 2018.

Edited by:

Günther F. Hofbauer, Universität Zürich, Switzerland

Reviewed by:

Oleg E. Akilov, University of Pittsburgh, United States
Salvador Gonzalez, University of Alcalá, Spain  

Copyright: © 2018 Patra, Laoubi, Nicolas, Vocanson and Wolf. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Marc Vocanson, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, INSERM, U1111, CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France, marc.vocanson@inserm.fr
Prof. Peter Wolf, Medizinische Universität Graz, Research Unit for Photodermatology, Department of Dermatology, Graz, 8010, Austria, peter.wolf@medunigraz.at