Aedes-chikungunya virus interaction: key role of vector midguts microbiota and its saliva in the host infection
- 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil
- 2Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Brazil
- 3Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil
- 4Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Brazil
- 5Universidade Federal do Pará, Brazil
- 6Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Brazil
- 7FACULTY OF PHARMACY, Universidade Federal do Pará, Brazil
Aedes mosquitoes are important vectors for emerging diseases caused by arboviruses, such as chikungunya (CHIKV). These viruses’ main transmitting species are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are present in tropical and subtropical climatic regions all over the globe. Knowledge of vector characteristics is fundamentally important to the understanding of virus transmission. Only female mosquitoes are able to transmit CHIKV to the vertebrate host since they are hematophagous. In addition, mosquito microbiota is fundamentally important to virus infection in the mosquito. Microorganisms are able to modulate viral transmission in the mosquito, such as bacteria of the Wolbachia genus, which are capable of preventing viral infection, or protozoans of the Ascogregarina species, which are capable of facilitating virus transmission between mosquitoes and larvae. The competence of the mosquito is also important in the transmission of the virus to the vertebrate host, since their saliva has several substances with biological effects, such as immunomodulators and anticoagulants, which are able to modulate the host's response to the virus, interfering in its pathogenicity and virulence. Understanding the Aedes vector-chikungunya interaction is fundamentally important since it can enable the search for new methods of combating the virus’ transmission.
Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Arthropod-borne virus, CHIKV, Virus maintenance, microorganisms
Received: 14 Sep 2018;
Accepted: 26 Feb 2019.
Edited by:Tonya M. Colpitts, National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL),Boston University, United States
Reviewed by:Stefanie C. Becker, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
Grant L. Hughes, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom
Copyright: © 2019 Silva Monteiro, Navegantes-Lima, de Lemos, Da Silva, Gomes, Reis, Rodrigues Junior, da Silva, Romão and Monteiro. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Marta C. Monteiro, Universidade Federal do Pará, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, Belém, 66095-170, Pará, Brazil, email@example.com