Original Research ARTICLE
Effect of nicotinamide against Candida albicans
- 1Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, China
- 2Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, China
- 3Second Military Medical University, China
- 4School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, China
- 5Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, China
Nicotinamide (NAM) has a long history in clinical applications and can be safely used for treating various diseases. In recent years, NAM was found to exhibit antimicrobial activities, inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we investigated the activity of NAM against Candida albicans, one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens. Our results showed that NAM exhibited significant antifungal activity against C. albicans, including fluconazole-resistant isolates. NAM could also effectively suppress biofilm formation. In addition, NAM exhibited antifungal activity against non-Candida albicans species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Combination of NAM and fluconazole showed an even strong antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of NAM was further confirmed in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that NAM increased cell wall β-glucans exposure and chitin content while decreased mannan level. Furthermore, by screening the C. albicans homozygous deletion mutant library, the C. albicans mutant lacking GIN4, which encodes a septin regulatory protein kinase and is essential for the maintenance of cell wall integrity, was identified to be high sensitive to NAM. These findings suggested that NAM might exhibit antifungal activities through affecting cell wall organization.
Keywords: Nicotinamide (NAM), Candida albicans, Drug Resistance, Fluconazole, Gin4
Received: 10 Dec 2018;
Accepted: 08 Mar 2019.
Edited by:Miguel C. Teixeira, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Reviewed by:Siddharth K. Tripathi, University of Mississippi, United States
MAURIZIO SANGUINETTI, University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 YingYing, XinRui, ZeBin, Fei, ZhenYu and YuanYing. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Cao YingYing, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, Shanghai, 200443, Shanghai Municipality, China, email@example.com