%A Millard,Matthew
%A Mombaur,Katja
%D 2019
%J Frontiers in Neurorobotics
%C
%F
%G English
%K Foot contact,Musculoskeletal Model,motion prediction,optimal control,multibody dynamics
%Q
%R 10.3389/fnbot.2019.00062
%W
%L
%N 62
%M
%P
%7
%8 2019-August-07
%9 Original Research
%#
%! Rigid foot-ground contact models
%*
%<
%T A Quick Turn of Foot: Rigid Foot-Ground Contact Models for Human Motion Prediction
%U https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnbot.2019.00062
%V 13
%0 JOURNAL ARTICLE
%@ 1662-5218
%X Computer simulation can be used to predict human walking motions as a tool of basic science, device design, and for surgical planning. One the challenges of predicting human walking is accurately synthesizing both the movements and ground forces of the stance foot. Though the foot is commonly modeled as a viscoelastic element, rigid foot-ground contact models offer some advantages: fitting is reduced to a geometric problem, and the numerical stiffness of the equations of motion is similar in both swing and stance. In this work, we evaluate two rigid-foot ground contact models: the ellipse-foot (a single-segment foot), and the double-circle foot (a two-segment foot). To evaluate the foot models we use three different comparisons to experimental data: first we compare how accurately the kinematics of the ankle frame fit those of the model when it is forced to track the measured center-of-pressure (CoP) kinematics; second, we compare how each foot affects how accuracy of a sagittal plane gait model that tracks a subjects walking motion; and third, we assess how each model affects a walking motion prediction. For the prediction problem we consider a unique cost function that includes terms related to both muscular effort and foot-ground impacts. Although the ellipse-foot is superior to the double-circle foot in terms of fit and the accuracy of the tracking OCP solution, the predictive simulation reveals that the ellipse-foot is capable of producing large force transients due to its geometry: when the ankle quickly traverses its u-shaped trajectory, the body is accelerated the body upwards, and large ground forces result. In contrast, the two-segment double-circle foot produces ground forces that are of a similar magnitude to the experimental subject because the additional forefoot segment plastically contacts the ground, arresting its motion, similar to a human foot.