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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Neurorobot. | doi: 10.3389/fnbot.2019.00089

Indoor Simulated Training Environment for Brain-Controlled Wheelchair Based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

Ming Liu1*,  Kangning Wang1, 2, Xiaogang Chen1, Jing Zhao3,  Yuanyuan Chen4, Huiquan Wang2, Jinhai Wang2 and Shengpu Xu1
  • 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, China
  • 2School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, China
  • 3Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
  • 4School of Microelectronics, Tianjin University, China

Brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) is able to improve the quality of life for people with motor disabilities. A lot of training is necessary for users to learn and master the BCW control and the proficiency and efficiency of BCW control are crucial for patients in daily use. In consideration of safety and efficiency, an indoor simulated training environment is built up in this paper to improve the performance of BCW control. The indoor simulated environment mainly realizes BCW implementation, simulated training scenario setup, path planning and recommendation, simulated operation, and scoring. And the BCW is based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and the filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) is used to analyze the electroencephalography (EEG). 5 tasks include individual accuracy, simple linear path, obstacles avoidance, comprehensive steering scenarios, and evaluation task are designed, 10 healthy subjects are recruited and carry out the 7-days training experiment to assess the performance of the training environment. Scoring and command-consuming are conducted to evaluate the improvement before and after training. The results indicate that the average accuracy is 93.55% and improves from 91.05% in the first stage to 96.05% in the second stage (p=0.001). Meanwhile, the average score increases from 79.88 in the first session to 96.66 in the last session and tend to be stable (p<0.001). The average number of commands and collisions to complete the tasks decrease significantly with or without the approximate shortest path (p<0.001). These results show that the performance of subjects in BCW control achieve improvement and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed simulated training environment.

Keywords: Simulated environment, Brain-controlled wheelchair, indoor training, Steady-state visual evoked potentials, Path recommendation

Received: 19 Jun 2019; Accepted: 09 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Liu, Wang, Chen, Zhao, Chen, Wang, Wang and Xu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Ming Liu, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, Beijing, China,