Original Research ARTICLE
Head anticipation during locomotion with auditory instruction in the presence and absence of visual input
- 1School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, Japan
- 2Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, Japan
- 3Center for Innovative Medicine and Engineering, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Japan
- 4Center for Cybernics Research, University of Tsukuba, Japan
- 5Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Head direction has been identified to anticipate trajectory direction during human locomotion. Head anticipation has also been shown to persist in darkness. Arguably, the purpose for this anticipatory behaviour is related to motor control and trajectory planning, independently of the visual condition. This implies that anticipation remains in the absence of visual input. However, experiments so far have only explored this phenomenon with visual instructions which intrinsically primes a visual representation to follow. The primary objective of this study is to describe head anticipation in auditory instructed locomotion, in the presence and absence of visual input. Auditory instructed locomotion trajectories were performed in two visual conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. First, ten sighted participants localized static sound sources to ensure they could understand the sound cues provided. Afterwards, they listened to a moving sound source while actively following it. Later, participants were asked to reproduce the trajectory of the moving sound source without sound. Anticipatory head behavior was observed during trajectory reproduction in both eyes open and closed conditions. The results suggest that head anticipation is related to motor anticipation rather than mental simulation of the trajectory.
Keywords: Head anticipation, Locomotion, eyes closed, Auditory Perception, Motor planning
Received: 18 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Jae Kun Shim, University of Maryland, College Park, United States
Reviewed by:Monica Gori, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy
Neil R. Harrison, Liverpool Hope University, United Kingdom
Copyright: © 2019 Dollack, Perusquia-Hernandez, Kadone and Suzuki. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Felix Dollack, School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan, email@example.com