%A Xu,Nan
%A Spreng,R. Nathan
%A Doerschuk,Peter C.
%D 2017
%J Frontiers in Neuroscience
%C
%F
%G English
%K Resting-state fMRI,effective connectivity,functional connectivity,Functional Networks,Correlation analysis
%Q
%R 10.3389/fnins.2017.00271
%W
%L
%N 271
%M
%P
%7
%8 2017-May-16
%9 Methods
%+ Nan Xu,School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY, United States,nx25@cornell.edu
%#
%! Effective Connectivity Estimated by a Generalized Correlation
%*
%<
%T Initial Validation for the Estimation of Resting-State fMRI Effective Connectivity by a Generalization of the Correlation Approach
%U https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnins.2017.00271
%V 11
%0 JOURNAL ARTICLE
%@ 1662-453X
%X Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is widely used to noninvasively study human brain networks. Network functional connectivity is often estimated by calculating the timeseries correlation between blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from different regions of interest (ROIs). However, standard correlation cannot characterize the direction of information flow between regions. In this paper, we introduce and test a new concept, prediction correlation, to estimate effective connectivity in functional brain networks from rs-fMRI. In this approach, the correlation between two BOLD signals is replaced by a correlation between one BOLD signal and a prediction of this signal via a causal system driven by another BOLD signal. Three validations are described: (1) Prediction correlation performed well on simulated data where the ground truth was known, and outperformed four other methods. (2) On simulated data designed to display the “common driver” problem, prediction correlation did not introduce false connections between non-interacting driven ROIs. (3) On experimental data, prediction correlation recovered the previously identified network organization of human brain. Prediction correlation scales well to work with hundreds of ROIs, enabling it to assess whole brain interregional connectivity at the single subject level. These results provide an initial validation that prediction correlation can capture the direction of information flow and estimate the duration of extended temporal delays in information flow between regions of interest ROIs based on BOLD signal. This approach not only maintains the high sensitivity to network connectivity provided by the correlation analysis, but also performs well in the estimation of causal information flow in the brain.