Original Research ARTICLE
Sodium Benzoate Attenuates Secondary Brain Injury by Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis and Reducing Mitochondria-mediated Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Possible Involvement of DJ-1/Akt/IKK/NFκB Pathway
- 1Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China
- 2Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, United States
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to explore whether Sodium Benzoate (NaB) could reduce neural cell apoptosis and alleviate neurological deficits after ICH. To assess the therapeutic effects of NaB, first, we measured brain water content, neurobehavior, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity at 24 h after ICH in different groups. Then western blot and immunofluorescence staining (IF) were applied to test the levels of different proteins. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe ultra-structures within the cells in different groups. The results showed that levels of DJ-1, p-Akt and p-IκB kinase (IKK) increased after ICH and peaked at 24 h. Besides, NaB significantly upregulated DJ-1 in both cytoplasm and mitochondria, and also increased the levels of p-Akt, p-IKK and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, but decreased the levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Additionally, NaB decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) while increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which then improving the neurological functions at 24 h and long-term (21 days) memory and spatial learning ability after ICH. However, the results mentioned above could be greatly reversed by MK2206 and rotenone. Therefore, we concluded that NaB could attenuate secondary brain injury via inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and reducing mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress via DJ-1/Akt/IKK/NFκB pathway.
Keywords: DJ-1, Sodium Benzoate, intracerebral hemorrhage, Secondary brain injury, Neuronal apoptosis, Oxidative Stress
Received: 20 Dec 2018;
Accepted: 09 Apr 2019.
Edited by:MICHELE PAPA, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli Caserta, Italy
Reviewed by:Federico Herrera, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB-NOVA), Portugal
Mariaelena Repici, University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Copyright: © 2019 Xu, Gao, Li, Lenahan, Zheng, Zhang and Shao. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Anwen Shao, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang Province, China, firstname.lastname@example.org