Different approaches to modulation of microglia phenotypes after spinal cord injury
- 1Kazan Federal University, Russia
- 2Kazan State Medical University, Russia
Microglial cells which are highly plastic immediately respond to any change in the microenvironment by becoming activated and shifting the phenotype towards neurotoxicity and/or neuroprotection. The polarization of microglia/macrophages after SCI seems to be a dynamic process and can change depending upon the microenvironment, stage, course and severity of a post-traumatic process. To date, effective methods to modulate microglia towards a neuroprotective phenotype in order to stimulate neuroregeneration are actively sought for. In this context, available approaches that can selectively impact the polarization of microglia/macrophages, regulate their synthesis of trophic factors and cytokines/chemokines, their phagocytic function and effects on the course and outcome of SCI are discussed in this review.
Keywords: Microglia, phenotypes, modulation, spinal cord injury, Neuroregeneration
Received: 20 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 29 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Preston E. Garraghty, Indiana University Bloomington, United States
Reviewed by:Michelle Hook, Texas A&M University, United States
John Gensel, University of Kentucky, United States
Copyright: © 2019 Akhmetzyanova, Kletenkov, Mukhamedshina and Rizvanov. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Yana O. Mukhamedshina, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, 420008, Tatarstan, Russia, email@example.com