Current and future nutritional strategies to modulate inflammatory dynamics in metabolic disorders
- 1Microbiology and System Biology, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands
- 2Risk Analysis For Products In Development, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Netherlands
- 3Metabolic Health Research, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Netherlands
- 4Janssen Research and Development, United States
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders have a large impact on global health, especially in Western countries. An important hallmark of metabolic disorders is chronic low-grade inflammation. A key player in chronic low-grade inflammation is dysmetabolism, which is defined as the inability to keep homeostasis resulting in loss of lipid control, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Although often not yet detectable in the circulation, chronic low-grade inflammation can be present in one or multiple organs. The response to a metabolic challenge containing lipids may magnify dysfunctionalities at the tissue level, causing an overflow of inflammatory markers into the circulation and hence allow detection of early low-grade inflammation. Here, we summarize the evidence of successful application of metabolic challenge tests in type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and unhealthy aging. We also review how metabolic challenge tests have been successfully applied to evaluate nutritional intervention effects, including and ‘anti-inflammatory’ mixture, dark chocolate, whole grain wheat and overfeeding. Additionally, we elaborate on future strategies to (re)gain inflammatory flexibility. Through epigenetic and metabolic regulation, the inflammatory response may be “trained” by regular mild and metabolic triggers, which can be understood from the perspective of trained immunity, hormesis and pro-resolution. New strategies to optimize dynamics of inflammation may become available.
Keywords: lifestyle, Metabolism, Phenotypic flexibility, resilience, low-grade inflammation
Received: 15 May 2019;
Accepted: 30 Jul 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 van den Brink, van Bilsen, Salic, Hoevenaars, Verschuren, Kleemann, Bouwman, Ronnett, van Ommen and Wopereis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Suzan Wopereis, Microbiology and System Biology, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Zeist, Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org