Beyond CAR T Cells: Other Cell-Based Immunotherapeutic Strategies Against Cancer
- 1Children’s National Health System, United States
- 2George Washington University, United States
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have successfully harnessed T cell immunity against malignancies, but they are by no means the only cell therapies in development for cancer.
MAIN TEXT SUMMARY: Systemic immunity is thought to play a key role in combatting neoplastic disease; in this vein, genetic modifications meant to explore other components of T cell immunity are being evaluated. In addition, other immune cells – from both the innate and adaptive compartments – are in various stages of clinical application. In this review, we focus on these non-CAR T cell immunotherapeutic approaches for malignancy. The first section describes engineering T cells to express non-CAR constructs, and the second section describes other gene-modified cells used to target malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body’s own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review.
Keywords: Cell immunotherapy, gene modification, Chimeric Antigen Receptor, NK cell therapy, NKT cell therapy, dendritic cell therapy, Gamma delta T cell therapy
Received: 02 Jan 2019;
Accepted: 07 Mar 2019.
Edited by:Matteo Bellone, San Raffaele Hospital (IRCCS), Italy
Reviewed by:John -. Maher, King's College London, United Kingdom
Dario Sangiolo, University of Turin, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Cruz, Patel, Burga, Powell, Chorvinsky, Hoq, McCormack, Van Pelt and Hanley. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Conrad Russell Y. Cruz, Children’s National Health System, Washington D.C., United States, firstname.lastname@example.org