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Front. Pharmacol. | doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00139

Orthosiphon stamineus Leaf Extract Affects TNF-α and Seizures in a Zebrafish Model

  • 1Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia
  • 2School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia

Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behaviour or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus, is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of Orthosiphon stamineus has the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures in a zebrafish model; and the effects of the extract on the expression levels of several genes in the zebrafish brain which are associated with seizures. The results of this study indicate that Orthosiphon stamineus has the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures as it is pharmacologically active against seizures in a zebrafish model. The anti-convulsive effect of this extract is also comparable to that of diazepam at higher doses and can surpass diazepam in certain cases. Treatment with the extract also counteracts the upregulation of NF-Kβ, NPY and TNF-α as a result of a Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treated seizure. The anti-convulsive action for this extract could be at least partially due to its downregulation of TNF-α. Future work could include the discovery of the active anti-convulsive compound, as well as determine if the extract does not cause cognitive impairment in zebrafish.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Orthosiphon stamineus, Zebrafish model, TNF-α, anticonvulsant

Received: 24 Nov 2017; Accepted: 08 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Marianthi Papakosta, Pfizer, United States

Reviewed by:

Thomas Heinbockel, Howard University, United States
Fathi M. Sherif, University of Tripoli, Libya  

Copyright: © 2018 Choo Kar Meng, Kumari, Hue and Shaikh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Mohd Farooq Shaikh, Monash University Malaysia, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bandar Sunway, 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia,