Original Research ARTICLE
Extracellular guanosine 5’-triphosphate induces human muscle satellite cells to release exosomes stuffed with guanosine
- 1Neuroscience Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Italy
- 2Pharmacy, Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Italy
- 3Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Centro Tecnologico avanzato per la ricerca sull’invecchimento, Istituto Nazionale di Riposo e Cura per Anziani (IRCCS), Italy
- 4Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy
- 5Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, United States
- 6Facoltà di Bioscienze e tecnologie agro-alimentari e ambientali, Università degli studi di Teramo, Italy
The extracellular guanosine 5’-triphosphate, GTP, has been demonstrated to be an enhancer of myogenic cell differentiation in a murine cell line, not yet in human muscle cells. Our hypothesis was that GTP could influence also human skeletal muscle regeneration, specifically in the first phases. We tested GTP stimulus on human muscle precursor cells established in culture by human satellite cells derived from Vastus Laterlais of three young male. Our data show that extracellular GTP a) up-regulated miRNA (specifically miR133a and miR133b) and myogenic regulator factor and b) induces human myogenic precursor cells to release exosomes stuffed with guanosine based molecules (mainly guanosine) in the extracellular milieu. We think that probably these exosomes could be addressed to influence by means of their content (mainly guanosine) in paracrine or autocrine manner the surrounding cells and/or at distance other muscles or tissues.
Keywords: guanosine 5’-triphosphate, Guanosine, Exosomes, satellite cells, Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
Received: 14 Nov 2017;
Accepted: 13 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Francisco Ciruela, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
Reviewed by:Martina Piccoli, Istituto di Ricerca Pediatrica, Fondazione Città della Speranza, Italy
Wataru Aoi, Kyoto Prefectural University, Japan
Copyright: © 2018 Pietrangelo, Di Filippo, Locatelli, Piacenza, Farina, Pavoni, Di Donato, Innosa, Provinciali and Fulle. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Tiziana Pietrangelo, Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Neuroscience Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Chieti, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org