%A Su,Xiaoya
%A Fischer,Alexander
%A Cichos,Frank
%D 2021
%J Frontiers in Physics
%C
%F
%G English
%K Browninan motion,non-equilibrium modal,frequency-dependent temperature,Optical Tweezers,Maxwell-Boltzman distribution
%Q
%R 10.3389/fphy.2021.669459
%W
%L
%N 342
%M
%P
%7
%8 2021-June-24
%9 Original Research
%#
%! Heated particle Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
%*
%<
%T Towards Measuring the Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution of a Single Heated Particle
%U https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphy.2021.669459
%V 9
%0 JOURNAL ARTICLE
%@ 2296-424X
%X The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a hallmark of statistical physics in thermodynamic equilibrium linking the probability density of a particle’s kinetic energies to the temperature of the system that also determines its configurational fluctuations. This unique relation is lost for Hot Brownian Motion, e.g., when the Brownian particle is constantly heated to create an inhomogeneous temperature in the surrounding liquid. While the fluctuations of the particle in this case can be described with an effective temperature, it is not unique for all degrees of freedom and suggested to be different at different timescales. In this work, we report on our progress to measure the effective temperature of Hot Brownian Motion in the ballistic regime. We have constructed an optical setup to measure the displacement of a heated Brownian particle with a temporal resolution of 10 ns giving a corresponding spatial resolution of about 23 pm for a 0.92 μm PMMA particle in water. Using a gold-coated polystyrene (AuPS) particle of 2.15 μm diameter we determine the mean squared displacement of the particle over more than six orders of magnitude in time. Our data recovers the trends for the effective temperature at long timescales, yet shows also clear effects in the region of hydrodynamic long time tails.