%A Haftbaradaran Esfahani,Payam
%A Westergren,Jan
%A Lindfors,Lennart
%A Knöll,Ralph
%D 2022
%J Frontiers in Physiology
%C
%F
%G English
%K cell geometry,contraction frequency,cardiac myocyte,sarcomere,signaling,mathematical modeling,simulation
%Q
%R 10.3389/fphys.2022.926422
%W
%L
%M
%P
%7
%8 2022-September-02
%9 Original Research
%#
%! Frequency-Dependent Signaling in Cardiac Myocytes
%*
%<
%T Frequency-dependent signaling in cardiac myocytes
%U https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2022.926422
%V 13
%0 JOURNAL ARTICLE
%@ 1664-042X
%X Background: Recent experimental data support the view that signaling activity at the membrane depends on its geometric parameters such as surface area and curvature. However, a mathematical, biophysical concept linking shape to receptor signaling is missing. The membranes of cardiomyocytes are constantly reshaped due to cycles of contraction and relaxation. According to constant-volume behavior of cardiomyocyte contraction, the length shortening is compensated by Z-disc myofilament lattice expansion and dynamic deformation of membrane between two adjacent Z-discs. Both morphological changes are strongly dependent on the frequency of contraction. Here, we developed the hypothesis that dynamic geometry of cardiomyocytes could be important for their plasticity and signaling. This effect may depend on the frequency of the beating heart and may represent a novel concept to explain how changes in frequency affect cardiac signaling.Methods: This hypothesis is almost impossible to answer with experiments, as the in-vitro cardiomyocytes are almost two-dimensional and flattened rather than being in their real in-vivo shape. Therefore, we designed a COMSOL multiphysics program to mathematically model the dynamic geometry of a human cardiomyocyte and explore whether the beating frequency can modulate membrane signal transduction. Src kinase is an important component of cardiac mechanotransduction. We first presented that Src mainly localizes at costameres. Then, the frequency-dependent signaling effect was studied mathematically by numerical simulation of Src-mediated PDGFR signaling pathway. The reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation was formulated to simulate PDGFR pathway in a contracting sarcomeric disc for a range of frequencies from 1 to 4 Hz. Results: Simulations exhibits higher concentration of phospho-Src when a cardiomyocyte beats with higher rates. The calculated phospho-Src concentration at 4, 2, and 1 Hz beat rates, comparing to 0 Hz, was 21.5%, 9.4%, and 4.7% higher, respectively.Conclusion: Here we provide mathematical evidence for a novel concept in biology. Cell shape directly translates into signaling, an effect of importance particularly for the myocardium, where cells continuously reshape their membranes. The concept of locality of surface-to-volume ratios is demonstrated to lead to changes in membrane-mediated signaling and may help to explain the remarkable plasticity of the myocardium in response to biomechanical stress.