@ARTICLE{10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00348,
AUTHOR={Daroczy, Gabriella and Wolska, Magdalena and Meurers, Walt Detmar and Nuerk, Hans-Christoph},
TITLE={Word problems: a review of linguistic and numerical factors contributing to their difficulty},
JOURNAL={Frontiers in Psychology},
VOLUME={6},
PAGES={348},
YEAR={2015},
URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00348},
DOI={10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00348},
ISSN={1664-1078},
ABSTRACT={Word problems (WPs) belong to the most difficult and complex problem types that pupils encounter during their elementary-level mathematical development. In the classroom setting, they are often viewed as merely arithmetic tasks; however, recent research shows that a number of linguistic verbal components not directly related to arithmetic contribute greatly to their difficulty. In this review, we will distinguish three components of WP difficulty: (i) the linguistic complexity of the problem text itself, (ii) the numerical complexity of the arithmetic problem, and (iii) the relation between the linguistic and numerical complexity of a problem. We will discuss the impact of each of these factors on WP difficulty and motivate the need for a high degree of control in stimuli design for experiments that manipulate WP difficulty for a given age group.}
}