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Front. Psychol. | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02334

Reciprocal Effects among Parental Homework Support, Effort, and Achievement? An Empirical Investigation

 Jianzhong Xu1*, Jianxia Du2, Shengtian Wu1, Hailey Ripple1 and Amanda Cosgriff1
  • 1Mississippi State University, United States
  • 2University of Macau, China

The present study investigates reciprocal influences of parental homework support, effort, and math achievement, using two waves of data from 336 9th-graders. Results revealed that higher prior autonomy-oriented support and homework effort resulted in higher subsequent achievement. Higher prior content-oriented support led to higher subsequent effort, but lower subsequent achievement. Additionally, higher prior effort led to higher subsequent autonomy-oriented support. Furthermore, our results supported the structural path invariance over gender. The current investigation advances extant research, by differentiating two forms of parental homework support (autonomy- and content-oriented support), and by showing their respective influences on subsequent homework effort and math achievement.

Keywords: Achievement, autonomy, effort, Parental homework support, Parent involvement

Received: 05 Oct 2018; Accepted: 07 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

Mar L. Moledo, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Reviewed by:

JUAN L. CASTEJON, University of Alicante, Spain
Rubén Fernández-Alonso, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain  

Copyright: © 2018 Xu, Du, Wu, Ripple and Cosgriff. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Jianzhong Xu, Mississippi State University, Starkville, United States,