Impact Factor 2.990 | CiteScore 3.5
More on impact ›

REVIEW article

Front. Psychol., 14 October 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.732899

A Scoping Review of the Factors That Influence Families’ Ability or Capacity to Provide Young People With Emotional Support Over the Transition to Adulthood

Emily Stapley1*, Isabella Vainieri1, Elizabeth Li1, Hannah Merrick1, Mairi Jeffery1, Sally Foreman1, Polly Casey1, Roz Ullman2 and Melissa Cortina1
  • 1Evidence Based Practice Unit, Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, University College London (UCL), London, United Kingdom
  • 2Riches & Ullman LLP, Carshalton, United Kingdom

The transition to adulthood is typically marked by changes in relationships with family members, peers, and romantic partners. Despite this, the family often maintains a prominent role in young adults’ lives. A scoping review was conducted to identify the factors that influence families’ ability or capacity to provide young people with emotional support during the transition to adulthood, and to understand the gaps in this research area. Title and abstract searches were conducted from January 2007 to February 2021 in multiple databases, including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Sociological Abstracts. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were also conducted with stakeholders (professionals from relevant sectors/working within this field). In total, 277 articles were eligible for inclusion in the review. Following data extraction, 19 factors were identified. Factors with the most research (more than 20 articles) included: family proximity or co-residence; mental health; sex or gender differences; and family communication. Factors with less research included: societal context; young person’s sexual orientation or gender identity; social networks; and adverse life events. Gaps in the research area were also identified, including methodological issues (e.g., lack of mixed methods and longitudinal study designs), a disproportionate focus on the parent–child relationship, and a lack of contextually situated research. Our findings indicate that future research in this area could benefit from taking an intersectional, multi-method approach, with a focus on the whole family and diverse samples.

Introduction

The traditional markers of adulthood in Western societies, such as the completion of education, establishing a career, moving out of the family home, marriage, and becoming a parent, tend to take place at a later age now, compared to in the mid to late twentieth century (Furstenberg, 2010). In a survey of conceptions of the transition to adulthood among different age groups in the United States, Arnett (2001) found that the following characteristics were most likely to be considered important markers of the transition to adulthood: “accepting responsibility for one’s actions, deciding on one’s beliefs and values, establishing an equal relationship with parents, and becoming financially independent” (p. 133). In recognition of the now lengthier nature of the transition to adulthood, Arnett’s (2000, 2004, 2007) theory of ‘emerging adulthood’ captures the ‘not a teenager, but not yet an adult’ status of individuals in their late teens and twenties, defining this period as one characterized by identity exploration, possibilities, instability, self-focus, and feeling ‘in-between.’ However, critics of Arnett’s theory have commented on limitations in its cross-cultural relevance (Hendry and Kloep, 2010; Moreno, 2012), and its lack of recognition of the influence of social structures, including economic, social, and demographic factors, on the nature, timing, and ease of the individual’s transition to adulthood (Bynner, 2005; Côté and Bynner, 2008).

Indeed, Berzin (2010) found that within a sample of 8,984 youth in the United States, 25% struggled with the transition to adulthood. Demographic factors, access to resources, availability of support (such as from family or social networks), and internal characteristics (such as autonomy, motivation, and coping skills) can all influence how young people manage the transition to adulthood (Masten et al., 2004; Berzin, 2010). In the United Kingdom, the Health Foundation’s Young People’s Future Health Inquiry found that young adults (aged 22–26) identified four assets that help with the transition to adulthood: the right skills and qualifications; personal connections; financial and practical support; and emotional support (Kane and Bibby, 2018). The present study is situated within the context of the 2020/2021 phase of the Health Foundation’s Young People’s Future Health Inquiry, which seeks to further explore the fourth asset identified by young adults: emotional support (Health Foundation, 2021). Emotional support can be defined in terms of the expression of empathy, care, reassurance, and trust, in the context of having someone to talk to and a space for expressing emotions (Cohen, 2004; Kane and Bibby, 2018). Specifically, the present study examines emotional support as provided by young people’s families over the transition to adulthood, and the factors that can influence this. This topic was selected by the Health Foundation as an area in their inquiry where the scale and extent of the academic literature on this topic was currently unclear.

The transition to adulthood involves a reshuffling of one’s social relationships, as relationships with peers and romantic partners become more prominent (Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017), and relationships with family members become voluntary to maintain (Aquilino, 2006). Peers and romantic partners can represent important sources of support for young people over the transition to adulthood (Guan and Fuligni, 2015). However, in many ways it seems that the family still maintains a significant supportive presence in young people’s lives over the transition to adulthood, with young adults often remaining dependent on their parents, at least financially and residentially, throughout their twenties (Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017). Indeed, existing research has highlighted the role of the family as a crucial source of support for young people over the transition to adulthood, with young people appearing to draw on their families for emotional and material support over a longer period of time now, as compared to earlier generations (Oliveira et al., 2020).

However, cultural differences have also been observed in terms of the extent and prominence of the family’s role as a source of support for young people over the transition to adulthood. For example, young people in southern Europe, as compared to Northern Europe, are more likely to remain in the family home for an extended period of time and then directly transition to marriage and parenthood (Iacovou, 2002). Moreover, a study in the United States found that whereas young people from European American backgrounds reported receiving increasing parental emotional support (including seeking help, advice, and sympathy from parents) over the transition to adulthood, young people from Asian and Latin American backgrounds reported stability over time in parental emotional support (Guan and Fuligni, 2015). The value placed on family ties can also vary between cultures, for instance ‘familism,’ which emphasizes the importance and centrality of the family unit, is a value particularly endorsed within Latino, Spanish, or Hispanic cultures (Updegraff et al., 2005). Yet, across cultures, studies have also identified associations between emotional support from parents or siblings and a range of positive outcomes for young adults, including the use of more constructive coping and emotion regulation strategies (Cabral et al., 2012), greater life satisfaction (Hollifield and Conger, 2015), emotional wellbeing (Peyper et al., 2015), and higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of depressive symptoms (Guan and Fuligni, 2015).

Despite the utility of familial emotional support over the transition to adulthood, the ability or capacity of the family to provide support for young people can be affected by multiple factors (Fingerman, 2017). Some factors may be internal to the family, for example, parental mental health or family socioeconomic status (e.g., Reising et al., 2013; Vreeland et al., 2019), and others may be external, for example, changes in economic climate or the influence of government policies (e.g., Elder, 2001; Fingerman et al., 2020). To account for this, Fingerman et al. (2020) have proposed the intergenerational systems in context (ISC) model, which considers the associations between microlevel familial processes and macrolevel societal factors and their implications for parent–child ties. Understanding the factors that can affect the ability or capacity of the family to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood has implications for policymakers and services seeking to provide support for young people and families.

To date, however, no review of the literature has been conducted specifically to map both the internal and external factors that existing research has shown can influence emotional support provision by young people’s families (broadly defined to include parents or carers, siblings, and extended family members, and families of varying structure) over the transition to adulthood. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature, alongside interviews with stakeholders working within this field, to understand what we already know about the factors influencing the family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood, and where there are gaps in this research area.

Methods

Scoping Review

The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews (Peters et al., 2020) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR; Tricco et al., 2018) guided our scoping review methodology. The primary review question was: what factors influence families’ ability or capacity to provide young people with emotional support to equip them to manage the transition to adulthood?

Participants

Participants included adolescents and young adults aged 12–24. Participants also included the family unit (of any structure, e.g., biological and step) and family members of any age (including parents or carers, siblings, grandparents, other extended family members, stepparents, and stepsiblings) identified by studies as contributing to, or providing, emotional support for young people.

Concepts

We defined the transition to adulthood (Concept 1) as a gradual process that enacts across adolescence and the twenties as young people develop cognitively, emotionally, and socially over time. Our definition of the family unit and family members (Concept 2) was not limited to any specific family structure or family member. Cohen (2004) has defined emotional support as “the expression of empathy, caring, reassurance, and trust and provides opportunities for emotional expression and venting” (pp. 676–677). The young people who took part in the Health Foundation’s Young People’s Future Health Inquiry described emotional support as “having someone to talk to, be open and honest with and who supports their goals in life” (Kane and Bibby, 2018, p. 8). It also became clear through our initial literature searches to inform our search terms that emotional support was a relatively broad, ill-defined construct in existing research, which could be construed as synonymous with such terms as closeness, intimacy, warmth, nurturance, connectedness, bonding, affection, empathy, and cohesion in family relationships. The latter are often referred to in the literature within the context of the quality of family relationships, interactions, and communication, and family member involvement, acceptance, responsiveness, and attentiveness to young people’s needs. Thus, given the exploratory nature of our review, emotional support (Concept 3) was defined very broadly as a concept that could reflect all of the above.

Context

As the focus of our review was on emotional support provided by the family for young people over the transition to adulthood, our search terms specified late adolescence and young adulthood as our developmental periods of interest. However, our age range included young people aged 12–24 to reflect our definition of the transition to adulthood as a gradual process that enacts across adolescence and the twenties. Studies examining the factors and processes that might enact longitudinally across adolescence and into emerging, early, or young adulthood were therefore relevant to our review. Studies were not limited to any geographical location.

Types of Evidence Sources

Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies and literature reviews (including peer-reviewed articles, and Masters and doctoral dissertations) available and accessible online were all eligible for inclusion.

Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Studies were included if they fulfilled all of the following criteria:

(a) The study explored the role of the family or specific family members as a source of emotional support for young people.

(b) The study explored the impact or influence of factors internal and/or external to the family on the ability or capacity of the family or specific family members to provide emotional support for young people.

(c) The young people in the study were aged 12–24. Studies that also included younger or older participants were still eligible if the age range overlapped with 12–24 years of age for the majority of the sample (within a range of 5 years for the upper age limit).

(d) The study was published in English or with an accessible English translation.

(e) The study was published from the 1st January 2007 onward (the year that the oldest participants in the review age group turned 12).

We excluded studies from our review if they focused on the experiences of young people and/or families with a physical health disorder, illness or disability, learning difficulty or disability, or neurodevelopmental disorder. Similarly, studies were also excluded from our review if they focused on evaluating the influence of a specific family support intervention. This was because our search terms did not specifically seek to identify such studies and so any identified studies were incidental rather than systematic. Given the large volume of research in these areas, such populations should constitute the focus of additional reviews.

Search Strategy

See Supplementary Appendix A for the final list of search terms. Title and abstract searches were conducted in the following databases for literature published between January 2007 and February 2021: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, Sociological Abstracts, Sociology Database, Social Science Database, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS).

Review Process

The Covidence software package was used to facilitate our review process, including screening and data extraction. Figure 1 presents a PRISMA flow diagram to illustrate the flow of information and identified records at each phase of the scoping review (Tricco et al., 2016, 2018). All titles and abstracts were double screened by two reviewers and those which met our inclusion criteria were taken forward for full text screening. Any discrepancies between reviewers were resolved through discussion with and review by the first author. All full texts were single screened. Relevant data were then extracted from all full text records that met the review inclusion criteria. Each article was represented by a separate data extraction form in Covidence, with the following forms of data extracted: aims or research questions; models or theories of family relations or support referenced; study design and methodology; geographical locations; sample and participants; description of emotional support provided by the family; internal or external factors that influence the ability or capacity of the family to provide emotional support for young people; study limitations; suggestions for future research.

FIGURE 1
www.frontiersin.org

Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram illustrating the flow of information and identified records at each phase of the scoping review (Tricco et al., 2016, 2018).

Following data extraction, all data extraction forms were exported from Covidence into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The review team then met to review the content of the spreadsheet and identify the internal and external factors influencing the ability or capacity of the family to provide emotional support for young people, which had been studied in each article. A consensus building and discussion approach was taken by the review team to group the articles under broad factor headings or themes, as identified ‘bottom-up’ by the review team through reviewing the data extraction forms together. All articles were assigned to at least one factor by the review team. Articles were grouped under more than one factor heading if the article studied more than one factor.

Stakeholder Consultation

Professionals from relevant sectors were invited to take part in the stakeholder consultation about their perception of the factors influencing familial emotional support and gaps in the evidence base. See Supplementary Appendix B for a copy of the interview schedule. The stakeholder interviews were conducted in parallel with the scoping review. Thus, stakeholders were asked to provide their own perspectives and interpretations, without knowledge and independently of the scoping review findings. Stakeholders were identified by the Health Foundation, the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, and through recommendations made by invited stakeholders. An invitation to take part in the stakeholder consultation was also put in the Centre’s newsletters.

Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 stakeholders (two interviews were attended by two stakeholders). All stakeholders were based in the United Kingdom. Three stakeholders were academics conducting research in the field of family relationships and/or young people’s health and wellbeing, four were involved in policymaking, four were employed by evidence-based organizations supporting young people and families, two were employed by organizations working with different types of family structures, and two provided a schools perspective.

All stakeholders gave their written informed consent to take part, including understanding that their participation was voluntary, the content of their interviews would be kept confidential, they could withdraw at any time, and anonymised findings would be published in reports or presentations. The interviews were conducted using Microsoft Teams or over the telephone and audio-recorded using an encrypted dictaphone. Interview lengths ranged from 20 to 70 min (M = 40.80, SD = 11.74). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using the NVivo 12 qualitative data analysis software package. The identities of all stakeholders have been anonymised in this report and any identifying details were also anonymised in interview transcripts.

Public Involvement

A young adult advisor and a parent advisor at the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families helped us to develop our scoping review search terms and stakeholder interview schedule, and assisted with conducting the stakeholder interviews.

Results

A total of 277 studies were eligible for inclusion in the scoping review. Summary information about these studies is reported in Table 1. Thirty-six articles (13.0%) were Masters or doctoral dissertations. As Table 1 shows, the majority of the studies were conducted in the United States (66.8%). The majority were peer-reviewed quantitative studies (81.2%), with smaller quantities of qualitative studies (11.6%), mixed methods studies (4.3%), and literature reviews (2.5%) identified. The majority of the empirical research employed a cross-sectional design (65.7%). Young people’s parents were the most researched family members (60.0%). We identified 19 factors across the 277 studies that can influence the family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood. Supplementary Table 2 presents the full list of articles organized by factor. Definitions of the factors and examples of study findings for each factor are reported in the following subsections.

TABLE 1
www.frontiersin.org

Table 1. Summary information about the 277 identified studies.

External Factors

Societal Context

Eight studies were categorized to a factor called ‘societal context.’ These studies reported on trends and policies at the societal level that can influence the family as source of emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood. Data comparisons from the United States show that young adults in the 2000s report more frequent contact, support from, and similarity in values with their parents than young adults in the 1980s and 1990s (Fingerman et al., 2012a). The transition to adulthood is now more prolonged, with young people reaching traditional adulthood milestones later now than they did 20 years ago, which contributes to greater interdependency between young adults and their parents (Fingerman et al., 2020). Advances in communication technology, societal shifts in terms of economic challenges, and the influence of public or government policies, such as health care, guardianship, or immigration policies, have all contributed to this (Fingerman, 2017). For example, in terms of economic challenges, the economic recession, which began in 2007, has been a key event shaping parent–child ties and contributing to increases in co-residence between young adults and their parents in such countries as the United States and the United Kingdom (Fingerman, 2017; Fingerman et al., 2020). Moreover, the Covid-19 pandemic is another major event currently contributing to economic difficulty and uncertainty for young people and their families, which will have implications for families’ experiences of the transition to adulthood (Oliveira et al., 2020).

Social Networks

Two studies examined how young people’s and the family’s ‘social networks’ are associated with the family’s provision of emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood. A quantitative study suggested that if social networks (including friends or other adults, e.g., teachers) have prominence in young people’s lives then the family may be less central as a source of support, or social networks may compensate for diminished family support (Reis et al., 2009). A qualitative study found that the ability of foster carers to provide support for young people was influenced by their relationships with supportive others in their environments (e.g., social workers); foster carers were better able to support young people when they felt that they were part of a team of professionals (Munford and Sanders, 2016). Foster carers also helped young people to connect with their immediate and extended family of origin, and foster carers’ own families became part of young people’s support networks (Munford and Sanders, 2016).

Family Process Factors

Parenting Styles

‘Parenting styles’ were investigated as an influencing factor in 28 studies, including authoritative parenting (versus authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting), autonomy-supporting parenting (versus helicopter parenting or controlling behavior), and parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings. Overall, studies examining this factor have found that parenting styles can affect the quality of family relationships. For instance, authoritative parenting, which is characterized by high levels of warmth, responsiveness, and support, and moderate levels of control, appears to be positively associated with the quality of the parent–child relationship and perceived family support over the transition to adulthood (Shenaar-Golan and Goldberg, 2019), as does autonomy-supporting parenting (Jung et al., 2020). High levels of parental care are associated with positive sibling relationships, whereas high levels of parental control (accompanied by low levels of care) are associated with more negative sibling relationships in young adulthood (Portner and Riggs, 2016). PDT of siblings has also been found to negatively affect sibling relationship quality. For example, perceived favoritism by parents is associated with poorer quality sibling relationships, sibling rivalry, lower levels of sibling warmth, and less sibling intimacy (e.g., Jensen, 2012; Gozu, 2017; Woo, 2020).

Family Relationship Quality

Forty-three studies examined associations between ‘family relationship quality’ and familial emotional support provision. Research has shown that parents support their young adult children when they have good relationships with them, when they find it rewarding to help them, and when they share values (Fingerman et al., 2012b; Fingerman, 2017). In turn, parental support is received more positively from young adults in the context of parent–child relationships characterized by warmth and high positive regard (Fingerman et al., 2013b). Studies have also looked at attachment and how this affects familial relationships (e.g., Ghali, 2010; Tibbetts and Scharfe, 2015; Alavi et al., 2020). For example, a study in Italy found that secure attachment with mothers and fathers was associated with high levels of warmth and low conflict in sibling relationships (Ponti and Martina, 2019).

Two studies have found that higher conflict between young people and their parents is associated with less perceived familial support (Bahrassa, 2013; Galambos et al., 2018). Perpetration of sibling aggression (though not sibling conflict) has been found to predict lower levels of sibling warmth, involvement, and emotional support 4 years later (Tucker et al., 2019). Several studies have also reported that interparental conflict and marital dissatisfaction have a detrimental impact on the parent–child relationship, including provision of less parental emotional support for young people, independently of parental romantic relationship status (divorced or married; e.g., Fabricius and Luecken, 2007; Frank, 2007; Riggio and Valenzuela, 2011). This association extended to sibling relationships too in one study, whereby higher levels of perceived parental marital satisfaction predicted closer and more communicative sibling relationships (Milevsky, 2019).

Studies have also examined the influence of young people’s levels of individuation and autonomy on familial emotional support provision. Over the transition to adulthood, emotional autonomy from parents appears to be linked to lower levels of warmth in the parent–child relationship, whereas other forms of autonomy, such as autonomy of ‘voice’ and in making social choices, appear to be linked to higher levels of warmth (Zimmer-Gembeck et al., 2011). It has also been found that freedom from inner conflict about individuation in emerging adulthood (e.g., guilt and anger around expressing one’s individuality with one’s parents) predicts more satisfying relationships with parents, but higher levels of functional independence are associated with less satisfying relationships with parents (Mendonca and Fontaine, 2013).

Relatively few studies have examined grandchild-grandparent relationship quality in the context of familial emotional support provision over the transition to adulthood. Studies have found that the level of closeness in grandparents’ relationships with their young adult grandchildren is associated with: the closeness of parents’ (particularly mothers) relationships with both the grandparents and the young adults (Monserud, 2008); physical proximity to grandparents (Roos et al., 2019; Wise and Onol, 2020); grandparent gender – with closer relationships typically found with grandmothers (Wise and Onol, 2020); contact frequency, medium, and quality (Wise and Onol, 2020); and the level of affectionate communication by grandparents (Mansson et al., 2017).

Shared Experiences, Interests, and Activities

Fourteen studies were categorized to a factor called ‘shared experiences, interests, and activities.’ In general, studies suggest that shared experiences, including shared interests (e.g., music), family activities (e.g., mealtimes, special celebrations, and quality time), life events (e.g., college attendance), and similar values, traits, and characteristics can have a positive impact on the family unit, parent–child and sibling relationships, and familial emotional support provision (e.g., Hair et al., 2008; Boer and Abubakar, 2014; Maximo and Carranza, 2016; Bayly and Bumpus, 2020; Ponti and Martina, 2020).

Family Communication

Forty-seven studies examined ‘family communication’ as a factor influencing familial emotional support provision over the transition to adulthood. Fingerman and colleagues concluded in their reviews of the literature that contact between young adults and their parents has increased over the past 25 years, likely facilitated by the widespread use of technology and changing economic and social conditions (e.g., Fingerman et al., 2013a, 2020; Fingerman, 2017). Synchronous communication methods, communication technologies, multiple communication channels, and the ability to hear a family member’s voice have all been found to have a positive impact on relational quality, intimacy, affection, and satisfaction (Lindell et al., 2015; Hessel and Dworkin, 2018). Phone and online contact methods enable families to maintain togetherness even when geographical distance increases, such as due to young people attending college or moving out of the family home (Marchant and O’Donohoe, 2014; Bacigalupe and Brauninger, 2017; Yu et al., 2017; Yang, 2018).

Studies have consistently suggested that a ‘conversation’ orientation within the family, whereby family members feel free to express their views, predicts perceptions of greater bonding within families (Schrodt et al., 2007; Ghali, 2010; Scruggs and Paul, 2020). Siblings who engage in ‘confirming’ (i.e., supporting each other’s endeavors, respecting viewpoints, and giving undivided attention) and ‘challenging’ (i.e., pushing each other to excel, and challenging or defending ideas) modes of communication are more likely to experience closeness and relational satisfaction in their relationships with each other (Phillips and Schrodt, 2015a). Young adults who report moderate to high ‘co-rumination’ (i.e., the interpersonal consideration of one’s problems) with parents and siblings tend to experience high levels of social support and bonding with those relational partners (Ames-Sikora et al., 2017).

Trust has been highlighted as a key aspect of young people’s relationships with their parents and siblings, influencing relationship intimacy and satisfaction, and young people’s willingness to disclose issues (Di Tunnariello, 2016; Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017). Deterding (2010) found that young adult siblings reported disclosing private information to each other as a way of maintaining relational bonds. Adolescent disclosure is also associated with greater parental warmth and relational closeness perhaps due, for example, to the greater shared sense of connection that follows from this (Padilla-Walker and Daye, 2019). In turn, parental openness and disclosure also predict increased relational closeness with emerging adults (Donovan et al., 2017).

Family Organizational Factors

Family Proximity or Co-residence

Twenty-seven studies were categorized to a factor called ‘family proximity or co-residence.’ Family proximity was defined geographically, and co-residence was defined as living in the same household. Overall, studies examining the influence of family proximity or co-residence on familial emotional support provision have yielded mixed findings. Approximately half of the studies identified co-residence or proximity as a positive factor associated with better relationship quality, increased levels of support from, or emotional closeness with family members (e.g., Fabricius and Luecken, 2007; Fingerman, 2017; Fingerman et al., 2017; Kim et al., 2020; Wise and Onol, 2020). Young people who live in close proximity to family members may have more opportunities to seek and receive support from family members (Kim et al., 2020). Yet, some studies found that moving out of the parental home led to increased closeness with, stronger bonds with, or support from family members (e.g., Brooks, 2015; Galambos et al., 2018; Hamwey et al., 2019). Increased distance can improve the quality of family relations by reducing family conflict (Whiteman et al., 2011; Milevsky and Heerwagen, 2013; Brooks, 2015). Other studies found no association between co-residence or proximity and family relationship quality (Conger and Little, 2010; Petree, 2014; Sulimani-Aidan et al., 2017). While studies have often examined this factor in the context of the young person moving out of or remaining resident in the family home, several studies also examined this factor in the context of parental divorce, in terms of one of the parents (usually the father) moving out of the family home (e.g., Fabricius and Luecken, 2007; Frank, 2007; Feistman et al., 2016).

Family Structure

Fifty-six studies examined whether and how ‘family structure’ can influence familial emotional support provision over the transition to adulthood. These studies focused on families with divorced or separated parents, stepfamilies, adoptive families, assisted conception families, foster care families or families with a child in care, and family size or the young person’s position in the family. Regarding family size, research has shown that parents with more children generally provide less support to each child, in comparison to parents with fewer children (Fingerman et al., 2009). Research examining sibling order has found that younger children receive more of every type of support from their parents than their older siblings (Fingerman et al., 2009), and that first-borns also find themselves providing sibling care and assuming parental roles toward their younger siblings, especially when the age gap is large (Milevsky and Heerwagen, 2013; Wu et al., 2018).

Findings have been mixed with regard to the impact of adoptive family status. One study found lower reported feelings of closeness within adoptive families than non-adoptive families (Walkner and Rueter, 2014), while another found that when adopted emerging adults feel more positively about their adoption, they report higher levels of closeness with their adoptive mothers (Walkner-Spaan, 2016). Two studies found that conception via assisted reproduction (IVF or donor insemination) had no negative impact on levels of parent–child warmth from the perspective of both parents and children (Golombok et al., 2009; Owen and Golombok, 2009). Research with young people in care has found that ties with carers (e.g., foster carers and professional figures), rather than parents, are associated with their perceptions of support (Won, 2009; Sulimani-Aidan, 2019).

There is broad agreement in the literature that exposure to parental divorce or separation is associated with less perceived parental emotional support, poorer quality parent–child relationships, and lower levels of relational closeness over the transition to adulthood (e.g., Young and Ehrenberg, 2007; Bertogg and Szydlik, 2016; O’Mara and Schrodt, 2017). Father–child relationships appear to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of divorce or separation than mother–child relationships (e.g., Nicholson, 2007; Riggio and Valenzuela, 2011; Lee, 2019). Indeed, fathers are more likely than mothers to become the non-residential parent in the event of a divorce or separation (Miller, 2010). Peters and Ehrenberg (2008) found that young adults with divorced parents perceived lower levels of father involvement and nurturance, and less contact with their fathers, than young adults with married parents.

On the other hand, Scott (2010) found that adolescent offspring were closer to their non-resident fathers following their parents’ divorce when their mothers had remarried. Scott (2010) suggested that offspring may seek support from their biological fathers when adjusting to life in a new stepfamily. On average, stepparents have been found to be less involved with and to feel less obligated to offer support to their stepchildren, as compared to biological or adoptive parents (Fingerman, 2017). Factors influencing stepparent-stepchild relationships include the quality of the relationship between one’s biological parent and stepparent (King and Lindstrom, 2016; Jensen and Lippold, 2018), the length of time that stepfamilies have been together (King and Lindstrom, 2016), and the amount and quality of time that the stepparent and stepchild spend together (Ganong et al., 2011).

Parental divorce or separation can also have a negative effect on emerging adults’ sibling relationships, with studies reporting lower levels of closeness and warmth between siblings in divorced families, compared to those in non-divorced or separated families (Conger and Little, 2010; Nitzburg, 2013; Milevsky, 2019). Yet, in a qualitative study of young adult women’s experiences of parental divorce, Reed et al. (2016) found that participants most often described turning to their siblings as a source of support during their parents’ divorce, whereas comparatively few participants felt that discussing their needs with their parents during this time was helpful.

Young Person’s Romantic Relationship Status or Transition to Parenthood

Nine studies explored how a ‘young person’s romantic relationship status or transition to parenthood’ can affect familial emotional support provision. Two studies found that parental support (including emotional support, listening, availability, advice, and companionship) decreases when their children are married (Fingerman et al., 2016b; Kim et al., 2020). However, another study identified no differences between non-dating and dating young adults in terms of their perceptions of emotional support from their parents (Lanz and Tagliabue, 2007). Yet, Shenhav (2018) found that young adults’ perceptions of parental approval of their romantic relationships were significantly associated with higher satisfaction with and closeness in their relationships with their parents. Only a small number of studies were identified that examined young people’s transition to parenthood as a factor influencing familial emotional support provision. For example, Updegraff et al. (2018) found that within a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers in the United States, earlier timing of the transition to parenthood was associated with greater stability over time in familism, which was in turn positively associated with levels of mother–child relationship warmth and social support.

Family Stressors

Mental Health

‘Mental health’ as a factor influencing familial emotional support provision was explored in 26 studies. Mental health issues examined by studies included depression, emotional distress, substance use, and schizophrenia. Overall, the majority of the studies reported that the presence of mental health issues (typically depression) in either the young person or the parent negatively influences the young person’s perception of the level and effectiveness of familial emotional support, the ability of the parent to provide effective emotional support, and the quality of the parent–child relationship (e.g., Needham, 2008; Chung et al., 2009; Moberg et al., 2011; Kim, 2012; Roche et al., 2016). Studies investigating how having a sibling with mental health issues affects sibling emotional support were comparatively scarce and showed mixed results. One study reported that poor sibling mental health negatively affects levels of perceived warmth (Watson, 2019). Yet, another study reported that relationships were strong between siblings, despite the challenges of having a sibling with a diagnosed mental health condition (Jacoby and Heatherington, 2016).

Physical Health

We excluded studies focusing on the experiences of young people and/or family members with a physical health disorder, illness, or disability. Therefore, the three studies captured in relation to the ‘physical health’ factor referred to non-specific physical health conditions. These studies found that poor physical health – whether of the young person or another family member – was associated with less relational closeness in family relationships (Bertogg and Szydlik, 2016; Roos et al., 2019; Kim et al., 2020).

Adverse Life Events

Seventeen studies examined the influence of ‘adverse life events’ on familial emotional support provision, including the impact of parental death, parental incarceration, abuse, and childhood trauma. Evidence shows that losing a parent in childhood or adolescence because of death or physical distance (e.g., due to incarceration) can result in decreased family cohesion (Birgisdottir et al., 2019), less closeness in the parent–child relationship (Scott, 2010), and less parental support (Nylander et al., 2018), but greater reliance on extended family members, such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles, for support (Benson and Bougakova, 2018; Nylander et al., 2018). Parental violence or abuse and childhood polyvictimization can also negatively affect the quality of parent–child relations later in life (e.g., Barnes et al., 2016; Allbaugh, 2018; Duval et al., 2019). Moreover, adverse life events, such as parental death or parental history of trauma, can lead to additional difficulties, such as deterioration in family members’ mental health or financial status, which can then in turn affect their ability to provide emotional support for young people (Berman et al., 2015; Gamache Martin, 2018; Murry, 2019).

Individual Factors

Personality

Six studies were categorized to a factor called ‘personality.’ These studies examined the influence of personality traits on familial emotional support provision. For example, in a sample of 674 young adults, Zupancic and Kavcic (2014) found that extraversion and agreeableness predicted stronger connectedness (communication, mutual understanding, respect, and trust) and higher levels of support-seeking from parents (including approval, help, and advice), conscientiousness was negatively related to levels of perceived parental intrusiveness and fear of disappointing parents (whereas neuroticism was predictive of the oppositive pattern), and openness was associated with self-reliance. Gozu (2017) found that young adults who scored highly in terms of openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness, and low on neuroticism, were more likely to report having better relationships with their siblings. Finally, in a qualitative study, Roos et al. (2019) found that perceptions of grandparents’ personality (e.g., empathetic vs. rigid) influenced whether young adult women desired closeness with, or distance from, their grandparents.

Biological Factors

Four studies focused on ‘biological factors’ influencing familial emotional support provision. For example, a study in the Netherlands found that there was a specific neural activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in young people who positively evaluated their mother’s traits, which suggests a possible neural indicator of the quality of young people’s relationships with their mothers (Van der Cruijsen et al., 2019). A study in the United States found that higher levels of waking cortisol, a hormone associated with stress, were related to stronger parental attachment, positive parenting, and bonding in a sample of adolescents examined over 6 years (Shirtcliff et al., 2017).

Young Person’s Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

Eight studies were categorized to a factor called ‘young person’s sexual orientation or gender identity.’ The majority of studies reported diminished familial emotional support in the context of a young person’s minority sexual orientation or gender identity. For example, lesbian and bisexual women report lower levels of parental support (in the form of closeness, enjoying each other’s company, and receiving love and warmth) than heterosexual women, and gay men report lower levels of parental support than bisexual and heterosexual men (Needham and Austin, 2010). Platt et al. (2020) found that cisgender college students report significantly more family support (including emotional help and support) and less family distress compared to transgender and gender-non-conforming students. In a qualitative study, gender dysphoria was found to negatively affect the parent–child relationship, as young people isolated themselves from their parents for fear of being judged or rejected (Littman, 2018).

Stage of Development or Age of the Young Person

Forty-six studies reported on how familial emotional support provision can be affected by the ‘stage of development or age of the young person.’ In general, findings regarding the influence of this factor have been inconsistent. Some studies have identified a decrease in parent–child relationship quality, closeness, communication quality, and support during the transition to adulthood, as compared to earlier life (e.g., Zupancic et al., 2014; Bowles and Hattie, 2015; Galambos et al., 2018), some have reported improvements (e.g., Jimenez, 2008; Morgan et al., 2010; Guan and Fuligni, 2015), and others have found no significant changes (e.g., Proulx and Helms, 2008; Moilanen and Raffaelli, 2010; Lindell, 2019).

Among studies that have investigated changes in sibling relationships across development, the majority have reported increased, improved, or stable emotional support, communication, and warmth among siblings during the transition to adulthood, as compared to earlier life (e.g., Halliwell, 2016; Killoren et al., 2016; Oliveira et al., 2020). On the other hand, research has also identified a decrease in support from grandparents over time, finding that grandparents are perceived as an important support source primarily in preadolescence (Spitz et al., 2020). However, studies have also shown that while contact between young people and their families (including grandparents) can decline over the transition to adulthood, their levels of emotional closeness remain stable (Neyer and Lehnart, 2007; Wetzel and Hank, 2020).

Sociodemographic Factors

Ethnicity and Culture

Fifty-six studies were categorized to a factor called ‘ethnicity and culture,’ which examined familial emotional support provision in the context of cultural or ethnic group differences and similarities. We note that with regard to this factor, differences observed between ethnic groups do not reflect ethnicity as a causal factor behind such differences. Rather, any differences may in fact reflect the structural inequalities and discrimination that individuals from different ethnic groups face, as well as differences in cultural values, norms, and family life. Around 80% of the studies that we identified in relation to this factor were conducted in the United States.

Studies have explored ethnic and cultural differences within the same country. For instance, in a study of United States college students’ perceptions of emotional support from extended family, Budescu and Silverman (2016) found that Asian American students reported significantly lower levels of emotional support than both European American and African American students. However, Asian American students also reported that they had fewer extended family members living near them (Budescu and Silverman, 2016). In another United States-based study, Hardie and Seltzer (2016) found that first-generation Hispanic immigrant young adults and non-immigrant Black young adults were more likely to turn to their parents for relationship advice than other ethnic groups. In addition, Black and Hispanic young adults of all immigrant generations were more likely to live with their parents than White young adults (Hardie and Seltzer, 2016). Murry (2019) found that the degree of exposure to racial discrimination affected African American parents’ provision of emotional support for their adolescent children. Specifically, parents with low-level exposure to racial discrimination provided more emotional support compared to those with high-level exposure to racial discrimination (Murry, 2019).

Some studies have examined associations between immigration status and familial emotional support provision. For example, Dillon et al. (2012) found that participants with documented immigration status in the United States (many of whom were Cuban) reported higher levels of family cohesion than participants with undocumented immigration status (many of whom were Central American). The lower levels of family cohesion among undocumented immigrants may be due to such factors as the high degree of economic instability and separation that these families experience compared to documented immigrants (Dillon et al., 2012). Research has shown that young immigrant adults perceive higher levels of relationship strength and bonding when their parents or siblings share their immigration status (e.g., documented or undocumented) (Morales et al., 2020). However, higher levels of language brokering (children translating for their parents) appear to be associated with lower levels of perceived parental support, as mediated by parental praise (Guan and Shen, 2015). Being born in a country different to both immigrant parents can lead to intergenerational acculturative dissonance, which can negatively affect parent–child closeness (Maru, 2021).

Studies have also explored ethnic and cultural differences in familial emotional support provision between different countries. For instance, Mansson and Sigurdardottir (2019) found that young adult grandchildren in the United States reported more perceived love, caring, and celebratory affection from their grandparents, as compared to Danish, Icelandic, and Polish young adult grandchildren. Alavi et al. (2020) identified significant differences in associations between family adaptability or cohesion and close attachment across the Western and non-Western country groupings in their sample. They suggested that such differences may be the result of a greater emphasis on collectivistic cultural values in non-Western countries, whereby family members’ interdependency has a positive influence on family relationship closeness (Alavi et al., 2020).

The concept of familism has been consistently found to be associated with high levels of acceptance, intimacy, closeness, and warmth in young people’s relationships with their parents and siblings (e.g., Baham, 2009; Killoren et al., 2015; Streit et al., 2018; Updegraff et al., 2018; Padilla et al., 2020). Indeed, studies have found that young people who have similar cultural values and beliefs, ethnic backgrounds, and religious beliefs to their family members report higher family cohesion, support, and closeness in their relationships with their parents and siblings (e.g., Tanaka, 2016; Hwang et al., 2019; Sheu, 2019; Atkin and Jackson, 2020). In a qualitative study, Atkin and Jackson (2020) found that parents with different ethnic characteristics to their young adult children were perceived by their children as being unable to understand the discrimination that they had experienced, as they could not relate to their experiences. This negatively affected the perceived quality of the support provided by their parents, especially if it involved them giving advice about how to handle discrimination (Atkin and Jackson, 2020). However, knowing that their parent was making an effort to support them, even if their advice was not very helpful, was nonetheless perceived as important (Atkin and Jackson, 2020).

Sex or Gender Differences

Fifty studies explored ‘sex or gender differences’ in the context of familial emotional support provision. Across studies, there is a general trend showing that women report higher levels of familial support, relationship quality, connectedness, and warmth than men (e.g., Beyers and Goossens, 2008; Moilanen and Raffaelli, 2010; Galambos et al., 2018; McKinney et al., 2018; Kim et al., 2020). Moreover, young people report receiving higher levels of support from mothers than from fathers, and mothers tend to be perceived as having a more supportive role than fathers (e.g., Umaña-Taylor et al., 2012; Zupancic et al., 2012; Mendonca and Fontaine, 2013; Galambos et al., 2018). Young people also report experiencing greater closeness, support, and warmth in their relationships with sisters than with brothers (e.g., Finzi-Dottan and Cohen, 2011; Cassidy et al., 2014; Tibbetts and Scharfe, 2015). Finally, studies with grandparents have shown that maternal grandmothers provide the highest levels of emotional support for young people (Wise, 2008; Gray et al., 2019).

Socioeconomic Status

Twenty-five studies examined the role of family ‘socioeconomic status’ (SES), including income, employment status, and education level, in influencing familial emotional support provision. Research suggests that young people in lower SES families are more likely to receive less support from their parents during young adulthood, due to such factors as lack of resources and higher stress (e.g., Fingerman et al., 2015; Hartnett et al., 2018; Quan, 2020). Studies have shown that the degree of closeness, openness, and quality of young people’s relationships with their parents is associated with the amount of financial support that their parents provide for them or with their degree of financial dependence on their parents (e.g., Johnson, 2013; Lindell, 2019; Lindell et al., 2020). On the other hand, some studies have found no influence of SES on familial emotional support provision and relationship quality (Melby et al., 2008; Fingerman et al., 2009; Roksa, 2019).

Studies have shown mixed findings with regard to the influence of young people’s employment status on familial emotional support provision (e.g., Roy et al., 2010; Bertogg and Szydlik, 2016; Kim et al., 2020). In terms of parental employment, Lim (2012), for example, found that parental absence at home (due to long working hours) affected parents’ emotional closeness with their children. Regarding young people’s education level, Fingerman et al. (2012c) found that college students received more support from their parents than non-students, and Brooks (2015) found that attending college can contribute to improved closeness with parents and siblings. Higher parental education level has been found to be associated with supportive parenting and bonding in the parent–child relationship (Melby et al., 2008; Neves et al., 2019).

Stakeholder Consultation Findings

Additional factors influencing familial emotional support provision identified by stakeholders included: the role of other significant adults in the young person’s life (e.g., teachers); families’ degree of access to resources to facilitate their provision of emotional support (e.g., charities and organizations supporting families); family members’ emotional intelligence and confidence in providing emotional support; and families’ relationships with statutory services (e.g., child and adolescent mental health services; CAMHS).

Stakeholders described a need within the research field for up to date statistics on both ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ family structures, for example kinship carers, and access to data that clearly shows the breadth and range of family structures, in order to further our understanding of the heterogeneity of families and move beyond the concept of the nuclear family. Stakeholders highlighted the importance of consideration of the impact of social change on familial provision of emotional support for young people. They recognized that life for young people is very different today compared to previous generations, with discussion of the “digital revolution,” for example, which has resulted in significant changes in communication between generations (e.g., use of social media).

Stakeholders identified several voices that they felt were missing from the current evidence base. This included not only the voices of siblings, grandparents, aunts and uncles as sources of emotional support for young people outside of their parents, but also the voices of parents and young people themselves on what they need or want in terms of support, and what helps. Stakeholders also felt that there was a need for research to further our understanding of familial emotional support in the context of disadvantaged or minority groups, such as young people or parents who identify as LBGQT+, or families from minority ethnic backgrounds.

Another theme across stakeholders’ suggestions for future research was the need for more of a focus on translational and implementation research. Stakeholders’ suggested next steps were to take learning from research conducted so far and put in place interventions, services, or programs stemming from this research that support the family’s ability to provide emotional support for young people, with a focus on working with families to understand what would work for them in their particular contexts.

Finally, no academic studies exploring the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood were identified through our scoping review. However, stakeholders suggested that there is a need for longitudinal research investigating the longer-term impacts (and the mechanisms behind this) of the Covid-19 pandemic for young people and families, and their implications for familial emotional support provision. Stakeholders commented that the pandemic’s impact on young people’s future financial independence, employment, and access to housing could affect the level of support needed from their families.

Discussion

A scoping review of the literature yielded 19 factors that can influence the family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood. Factors with the most research (more than 20 articles) were: family proximity or co-residence; mental health; parenting styles; ethnicity and culture; sex or gender differences; socioeconomic status; family relationship quality; family communication; stage of development or age of the young person; and family structure. Factors with less research (fewer than 20 articles) were: societal context; young person’s romantic relationship status or transition to parenthood; young person’s sexual orientation or gender identity; personality; social networks; biological factors; physical health; adverse life events; and shared experiences, interests, and activities.

Gaps in the Research Field and Suggestions for Future Research

Drawing on learning from the scoping review and the stakeholder consultation, we have identified the following gaps in existing research and suggestions for future research.

A Whole Household (and Beyond) Approach

The findings from our review reflect general trends observed within the wider literature on family relations over the transition to adulthood. In general, there has been considerably less focus on sibling relationships in existing research, as compared to the parent–child relationship where the bulk of the research lies (Conger and Little, 2010; Oliveira et al., 2020). Even less research in this context has focused on young people’s relationships with their grandparents and other extended family members (Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017; Oliveira et al., 2020). Moreover, studies have often relied upon data collected from a single group of informants, such as young people or their parents or a selected sibling (Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017; Oliveira et al., 2020).

Future research exploring the factors that influence the ability or capacity of the family to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood should focus on the whole family. In doing so, researchers should seek to collect data from multiple informants, including family members who live inside or outside of the household, and examine the factors influencing emotional support provision within the parent–child relationship as well as within relationships with siblings and extended family members. It is important for future research to consider and measure multiple family member perspectives, as family members may have different views on and experiences of their relationships with each other (Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017; Oliveira et al., 2020).

We also identified minimal research seeking to compare similarities and differences in the factors influencing familial emotional support between families of varying size and structure, between family members with differing sexual orientations and gender identities, and between different types of families, including biological, married, cohabiting, separated, single-parent, step, adoptive, foster, and assisted conception families. Thus, future research should also seek to compare perceptions and experiences of familial emotional support, and the factors that influence this, within samples of participants from different family types and structures.

Contextually Situated Research

In another recent review of the literature, Fingerman et al. (2020) concluded that “despite decades of head nodding to life course and ecological theories, many studies on intergenerational ties examine […] behaviors and qualities of this tie devoid of larger context” (p. 394). Following Fingerman et al. (2020), we similarly conclude that more attention is needed in future research to the wider societal, political, cultural, and historical context within which family relationships sit, and the external factors (including government policies and shifts in the political and economic climate) that can influence the family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood. Engagement with contextually situated meanings of mental health, wellbeing, family, and emotional support from participants’ perspectives, and within studies across different contexts, would also add to the research area.

Diversity in Samples

Studies have often recruited convenience samples (frequently students), with little heterogeneity in sex, ethnicity, and SES, thus limiting the generalisability of results. Males (e.g., young men and fathers) have been underrepresented across studies. The reliance on college student samples means that families of lower SES are likely underrepresented in existing literature. The majority of the research that we identified through our review was conducted in a United States context. Moreover, broad ethnic and cultural differentiations, such as between Western and non-Western societies, in existing research further limits the generalisability of findings, as there will likely be important subgroup differences within different geographic contexts and ethnic and cultural groups.

Consequently, echoing previous reviews of the literature on family relations over the transition to adulthood (Lindell and Campione-Barr, 2017; Oliveira et al., 2020), future research is needed to replicate and extend key results reported in our review with more diverse samples (e.g., families from a range of geographic locations, families of varying size and structure, and families of varying SES or class). In particular, given that the majority of the studies identified in our review were conducted in the United States, this suggests that there is a need for greater ethnic and cultural diversity in research in this area. This includes exploring familial emotional support provision and the factors that influence this in the context of migrant and majority cultures in different countries, indigenous communities, immigration status, being a refugee or asylum seeker, and experiences of racialization, racism, and discrimination. A range of possible factors influencing familial emotional support provision need to be explored in tandem by researchers when investigating differences between ethnic and cultural groups, including structural inequalities, discrimination, and the influence of national policies.

Longitudinal Research

The self-report and retrospective nature of much of the data identified through our review, and the cross-sectional and correlational design of many studies, limits conclusions that can be drawn about causal relations between factors and familial emotional support provision. Therefore, more longitudinal studies are needed to examine the factors that unfold over the transition to adulthood and influence the ability or capacity of the family to provide young people with emotional support.

Mixed Methods Research

Much of the research identified through our review is quantitative in design, with comparatively few studies taking a mixed methods or qualitative research approach. Research using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies could illuminate both the factors and mechanisms behind impact, i.e., how do factors exert their effect. Standardized measures of factors, emotional support, and outcomes can provide data to assess statistical change, patterns, or trends. However, some studies identified through our review have used very brief measures of emotional support, such as a single item. Future research should incorporate more complex measures of support, contact, and relationship quality when examining familial emotional support provision. In-depth qualitative research is then needed to explore the nature of emotional support provision by family members for young people, and the ways in which particular factors enable or hinder this, in participants’ own words and from their own lived experiences.

An Intersectional Approach

Consideration of the intersection between multiple aspects or facets of family members’ identities (including their sexual, gender, and ethnic identities) that could influence familial emotional support provision for young people is important and appears to be a gap in existing research. Future research should also consider how multiple factors intersect to either provide cumulative advantage or cumulative disadvantage for a family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood.

Limitations of This Review

The studies included in our scoping review represent those identified using our pre-defined search terms, which focused specifically on the transition to adulthood and familial emotional support provision. Given the exploratory nature of our review, emotional support was defined very broadly as a construct synonymous with multiple characteristics of familial support and relationships, which meant that our pool of eligible studies was large. Nonetheless, there is still an even broader literature relating to many of the factors identified here that would not have met the criteria for inclusion in our review based on our search terms. As we conducted a scoping review rather than a systematic review, we did not conduct a formal quality assessment of any of the studies included in this review.

Practical constraints placed several restrictions on our review process. First, only full texts that were available and accessible online were accessed during the review. Second, a systematic search of the gray literature was not conducted. Third, while all study titles and abstracts were double screened by two members of the review team, both full text screening and data extraction were conducted by single members of the review team. Double reviewer input at all stages of the review would have been desirable to maximize precision.

We excluded studies from our review if they focused on the experiences of young people and/or families with a physical health disorder, illness or disability, learning difficulty or disability, or neurodevelopmental disorder. Similarly, studies were also excluded from our review if they focused on evaluating the influence of a specific family support intervention. This meant that we focused to a lesser extent in our review on the family’s interaction with institutions, such as statutory care services, which could also affect familial emotional support provision. Given the large volume of research across both of these areas, there is much scope for future reviews focusing on the factors influencing emotional support provision within families with these experiences.

Given that the majority of the studies identified in our review were conducted with samples in the United States and other Western countries, the transferability of the factors identified through our review to other countries, cultures, and locations cannot be ascertained here. Our exclusion of studies not written in the English language may also have contributed to this. Moreover, our stakeholder interviewees were all based in the United Kingdom. We aimed to engage with a targeted yet diverse sample of stakeholders working within a range of sectors. Despite this, a limitation of the stakeholder consultation was the lack of representation of stakeholders from different sectors reflecting perspectives on different family structures (e.g., adoptive families and stepfamilies), different institutions (e.g., the criminal justice system), and different cultural perspectives. It is probable that a larger number and wider representation of stakeholders could have generated additional insights.

Conclusion

Overall, our review suggests that future research examining the factors that enable or hinder the family in providing emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood needs to take an approach that:

(1) Considers the intersectionality between the different factors influencing familial emotional support provision and between the different facets of family members’ and young people’s identities;

(2) Moves beyond focusing on the parent–child relationship to focusing on other family relationships too, including young people’s relationships with their siblings, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins;

(3) Focuses on diverse samples in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, geographic locations, and family structures;

(4) Uses both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to illuminate the factors (and mechanisms behind the impact of factors) that influence familial emotional support provision over the transition to adulthood;

(5) Considers the wider context within which families are situated, including the influence of societal, political, economic, and cultural factors on the family’s ability or capacity to provide emotional support for young people;

(6) Seeks to apply current knowledge to the design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions or programs for supporting families in providing emotional support for young people over the transition to adulthood.

Author Contributions

ES led on the conception and design of the study, literature searching and review process, stakeholder consultation, and overall drafting of the manuscript. IV contributed to the design of the study, project managed the literature searching and review process, and wrote sections of the manuscript. EL, MJ, and SF undertook the literature searching and review process, and wrote sections of the manuscript. HM contributed to the conception and design of the study, conducted the stakeholder interviews, and wrote sections of the manuscript. PC and MC contributed to the conception and design of the study, literature searching and review process, and wrote sections of the manuscript. RU contributed to the design of the study and drafting of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version.

Funding

This study was funded by the Health Foundation (Grant ID: 2323237).

Author Disclaimer

The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Health Foundation.

Conflict of Interest

RU is a partner in Riches & Ullman LLP.

The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Acknowledgments

An earlier version of this paper has been published as a preprint on the PsyArXiv server (Stapley et al., 2021). We would like to thank our stakeholder interviewees who kindly took time out of their busy schedules to take part in the stakeholder consultation. We thank Laurelle Brown Training and Consultancy, including Laurelle and her associates (Pallawi Sinha and Rupinder Parhar), for their helpful feedback on the review regarding issues of equity, diversity, and inclusion. We also thank our academic advisory group (Nick Midgley, Jessica Deighton, and Pasco Fearon) for their advice over the course of the review. Finally, we thank Sandra and Natalia, Champions at the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, for working with us on this project and for providing valuable insights from their perspectives as a young adult and parent, respectively.

Supplementary Material

The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.732899/full#supplementary-material

References

Agueda, P., Oliva, A., and del Carmen, R. M. (2015). Family relationships from adolescence to emerging adulthood. J. Fam. Issues 36, 2002–2020. doi: 10.1177/0192513X13507570

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ahrons, C. R. (2007). Family ties after divorce: long-term implications for children. Fam. Process 46, 53–65. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00191.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Alavi, M., Latif, A. A., Ninggal, M. T., Mustaffa, M. S., and Amini, M. (2020). Family functioning and attachment among young adults in western and non-western societies. J. Psychol. 154, 346–366. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2020.1754153

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Alhussain, K., Shah, D., Thornton, J. D., and Kelly, K. M. (2019). Familial opioid misuse and family cohesion: impact on family communication and well-being. Addict. Disord. Their Treat. 18, 194–204. doi: 10.1097/ADT.0000000000000165

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Allbaugh, L. J. (2018). Female Adolescent Trauma Survivors and Their Parents: Change in Quality of Bond as a Predictor of Later Vulnerability or Resilience. Electronic Thesis. Oxford, OH: Miami University.

Google Scholar

Ames-Sikora, A. M., Donohue, M. R., and Tully, E. C. (2017). Nonlinear associations between co-rumination and both social support and depression symptoms. J. Psychol. 151, 597–612. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2017.1372345

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ana, P., Petra, T., Silva, C. S., Eunice, M., Prioste, A., Tavares, P., et al. (2020). The relationship between family climate and identity development processes: the moderating role of developmental stages and outcomes. J. Child Fam. Stud. 29, 1525–1536. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01600-8

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Aquilino, W. S. (2006). “Family relationships and support systems in emerging adulthood,” in Emerging Adults in America: Coming of Age in the 21st Century, eds J. J. Arnett and J. L. Tanner (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association), 193–217. doi: 10.1037/11381-008

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Arenas Nieves, C. L. (2019). A Phenomenological Consideration of Military Adolescents’ Experience of Parental Deployment to a Combat Zone. Electronic Thesis. San Diego, CA: Northcentral University.

Google Scholar

Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. Am. Psychol. 55, 469–480. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: perspectives from adolescence through midlife. J. Adult Dev. 8, 133–143.

Google Scholar

Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Google Scholar

Arnett, J. J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: what is it, and what is it good for? Child Dev. Perspect. 1, 68–73.

Google Scholar

Atkin, A. L., and Jackson, K. F. (2020). “Mom, you don’t get it: a critical examination of multiracial emerging adults’ perceptions of parental support. Emerg. Adulthood 9, 1–15. doi: 10.1177/2167696820914091

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bacigalupe, G., and Brauninger, I. (2017). Emerging technologies and family communication: the case of international students. Contemp. Fam. Ther. 39, 289–300. doi: 10.1007/s10591-017-9437-7

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Baham, M. E. (2009). Sibling Relationship Quality and Psychosocial Outcomes in European- and Mexican-American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Familism. Electronic Thesis. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.

Google Scholar

Bahrassa, N. F. (2013). The Development and Trajectory of Parent-Child Conflict During College. Electronic Thesis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

Google Scholar

Barnes, S. E., Howell, K. H., and Miller-Graff, L. E. (2016). The relationship between polyvictimization, emotion dysregulation, and social support among emerging adults victimized during childhood. J. Aggress. Maltreat. Trauma 25, 470–486. doi: 10.1080/10926771.2015.1133749

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bayly, B. L., and Bumpus, M. F. (2020). Patterns and Implications of values similarity, accuracy, and relationship closeness between emerging adults and mothers. J. Moral Educ. 49, 496–511. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2019.1669545

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Benson, J. E., and Bougakova, A. (2018). Kin networks and mobility in the transition to adulthood. Adv. Child Dev. Behav. 54, 259–282. doi: 10.1016/bs.acdb.2017.10.004

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Berman, L. R., Snow, R. C., Moorman, J. D., Policicchio, D., Geronimus, A. T., and Padilla, M. B. (2015). Parental loss and residential instability: the impact on young women from low-income households in Detroit. J. Child Fam. Stud. 24, 416–426. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9852-9

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bertogg, A., and Szydlik, M. (2016). The closeness of young adults’ relationships with their parents. Swiss J. Sociol. 42, 41–60. doi: 10.1515/sjs-2016-0003

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Berzin, S. C. (2010). Vulnerability in the transition to adulthood: defining risk based on youth profiles. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 32, 487–495.

Google Scholar

Beyers, W., and Goossens, L. (2008). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. J. Adolesc. 31, 165–184. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.04.003

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Birgisdottir, D., Bylund Grenklo, T., Nyberg, T., Kreicbergs, U., Steineck, G., and Furst, C. J. (2019). Losing a parent to cancer as a teenager: family cohesion in childhood, teenage, and young adulthood as perceived by bereaved and non-bereaved youths. Psycho Oncol. 28, 1845–1853. doi: 10.1002/pon.5163

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Boer, D., and Abubakar, A. (2014). Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people’s social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures. Front. Psychol. 5:392. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00392

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Boutelle, K., Eisenberg, M. E., Gregory, M. L., and Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2009). The reciprocal relationship between parent-child connectedness and adolescent emotional functioning over 5 years. J. Psychosom. Res. 66, 309–316. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.10.019

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bowles, T. V., and Hattie, J. A. (2015). Getting by with a little help from my friends: a pilot study of the measurement and stability of positive social support from significant others for adolescents. J. Relationsh. Res. 6, 1–9. doi: 10.1017/jrr.2014.15

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Brawer, M. (2018). Lived Experiences of Emerging Adults from Single-Parent Families: Exploring Responses to Perceived Maternal Depression. Electronic Thesis. Bronx, NY: Fordham University.

Google Scholar

Brook, J. S., Balka, E. B., Zhang, C., and Brook, D. W. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of externalizing behavior. J. Child Fam. Stud. 24, 2957–2965. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-0099-x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Brooks, J. E. (2015). The impact of family structure, relationships, and support on African American students’ collegiate experiences. J. Black Stud. 46, 817–836. doi: 10.1177/0021934715609914

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bucx, F., and van Wel, F. (2008). Parental bond and life course transitions from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescence 43, 71–88.

Google Scholar

Budescu, M., and Silverman, L. R. (2016). Kinship support and academic efficacy among college students: a cross-sectional examination. J. Child Fam. Stud. 25, 1789–1801. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0359-z

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bynner, J. (2005). Rethinking the youth phase of the life-course: the case for emerging adulthood? J. Youth Stud. 8, 367–384. doi: 10.1080/13676260500431628

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cabral, J., Matos, P. M., Beyers, W., and Soenens, B. (2012). Attachment, emotion regulation and coping in Portuguese emerging adults: a test of a mediation hypothesis. Span. J. Psychol. 15, 1000–1012.

Google Scholar

Cassidy, T., Wright, E., and Noon, E. (2014). Family structure and psychological health in young adults. Psychology 5, 1165–1174. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.510129

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Chang, E. S., and Greenberger, E. (2012). Parenting satisfaction at midlife among European- and Chinese-American mothers with a college-enrolled child. Asian Am. J. Psychol. 3, 263–274. doi: 10.1037/a0026555

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Chung, W. Y., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., and Chuansheng, H. (2009). A cross-ethnic study of adolescents’ depressed mood and the erosion of parental and peer warmth during the transition to young adulthood. J. Res. Adolesc. 19, 359–379. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00592.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Clark Culpepper, T. R. (2007). The Relationship Between Young Adults’ Retrospective Perceptions of Differential Parental Treatment, Quality of the Childhood and Current Sibling Relationship and Current Psychological Adjustment. Electronic Thesis. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

Google Scholar

Coe, E. (2018). Divorce-Related Parental Concerns and Outcomes from the Perspectives of Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents. Electronic Thesis. Waco, TX: Baylor University.

Google Scholar

Cohen, S. (2004). Social relationships and health. Am. Psychol. 59, 676–684.

Google Scholar

Colaner, C. W., Soliz, J., and Nelson, L. R. (2014). Communicatively managing religious identity difference in parent-child relationships: the role of accommodative and nonaccommodative communication. J. Fam. Commun. 14, 310–327. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2014.945700

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Conger, K. J., and Little, W. M. (2010). Sibling relationships during the transition to adulthood. Child Dev. Perspect. 4, 87–94.

Google Scholar

Côté, J., and Bynner, J. M. (2008). Changes in the transition to adulthood in the UK and Canada: the role of structure and agency in emerging adulthood. J. Youth Stud. 11, 251–268. doi: 10.1080/13676260801946464

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cruz, A. M. (2007). Managing Privacy Boundaries Between Parents and Young-Adult Children: An Examination of the Relationship Between Cultural Orientation, Family Communication, Family Satisfaction, and Parental Intrusion. Electronic Thesis. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Google Scholar

Davis, A. N., Rudy, D., Su-Russell, C., and Zhang, C. (2018). Chinese and European American undergraduates’ perceptions of maternal warmth and negativity as predictors of self-esteem and life satisfaction. Cross Cultur. Res. 52, 192–212. doi: 10.1177/1069397117718812

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

De Goede, I. H. A., Branje, S. J. T., Meeus, W. H. J., and de Goede, I. H. A. (2009). Developmental changes in adolescents’ perceptions of relationships with their parents. J. Youth Adolesc. 38, 75–88. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9286-7

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Di Tunnariello, N. (2016). “What do I do?”: Exploring Elements of Solicited Advice and Relationship Satisfaction Between Emerging Adults and their Parents. Electronic Thesis. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University.

Google Scholar

Dillon, F. R., de La Rosa, M., Sanchez, M., and Schwartz, S. J. (2012). Preimmigration family cohesion and drug/alcohol abuse among recent latino immigrants. Fam. J. Alex. Va. 20:10.1177/1066480712448860. doi: 10.1177/1066480712448860

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Donovan, E. E., Thompson, C. M., LeFebvre, L., and Tollison, A. C. (2017). Emerging adult confidants’ judgments of parental openness: disclosure quality and post-disclosure relational closeness. Commun. Monogr. 84, 179–199. doi: 10.1080/03637751.2015.1119867

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Doughty, S. E. (2017). Sibling Differentiation in Activity Interests: Longitudinal Linkages to Sibling Relationship Quality and Self-Worth. Electronic Thesis. University Park, PA: Penn State Graduate School.

Google Scholar

Duval, P., Pietri, M., and Bouteyre, E. (2019). Effect of perceived parent child relations on adjustment of young women exposed to mutual intimate partner violence during childhood. Aggress. Violent Behav. 47, 274–281. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2019.01.012

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Edmond, Y. M. (2008). Ecological determinants of parenting practices among Latin American and Caribbean mothers of adolescents: Findings from the new immigrant survey. (Electronic Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland).

Google Scholar

Elam, K. K., Chassin, L., and Pandika, D. (2018). Polygenic risk, family cohesion, and adolescent aggression in Mexican American and European American families: developmental pathways to alcohol use. Dev. Psychopathol. 30, 1715–1728. doi: 10.1017/S0954579418000901

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Elder, G. H. (2001). Families, social change, and individual lives. Marriage Fam. Rev. 31, 187–203.

Google Scholar

Fabricius, W. V., and Luecken, L. J. (2007). Postdivorce living arrangements, parent conflict, and long-term physical health correlates for children of divorce. J. Fam. Psychol. 21, 195–205.

Google Scholar

Feistman, R., Jamison, T., Coleman, M., and Ganong, L. (2016). Renegotiating nonresidential father-child relationships during emerging adulthood. Fam. Relat. 65, 673–687. doi: 10.1111/fare.12223

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fellers, M., and Schrodt, P. (2020). Perceptions of fathers’ confirmation and affection as mediators of masculinity and relational quality in father-child relationships. J. Fam. Commun. 21, 46–62. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2020.1866574

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ferrari, L., Ranieri, S., Barni, D., and Rosnati, R. (2015). Parent-child relationship and adoptees’ psychological well-being in adolescence and emerging adulthood: disentangling maternal and paternal contribution. Fam. Sci. 6:77. doi: 10.1080/19424620.2015.1081005

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K., Miller, L., Birditt, K., and Zarit, S. (2009). Giving to the good and the needy: parental support of grown children. J. Marriage Fam. 71, 1220–1233. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00665.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L. (2017). Millennials and their parents: implications of the new young adulthood for midlife adults. Innov. Aging 1:igx026. doi: 10.1093/geroni/igx026

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Cheng, Y.-P., Cichy, K. E., Birditt, K. S., and Zarit, S. (2013b). Help with “strings attached”: offspring perceptions that middle-aged parents offer conflicted support. J. Gerontol. Ser. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 68, 902–911. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbt032

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Cheng, Y.-P., Kim, K., Fung, H. H., Han, G., Lang, F. R., et al. (2016c). Parental involvement with college students in Germany, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States. J. Fam. Issues 37, 1384–1411. doi: 10.1177/0192513X14541444

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Cheng, Y.-P., Tighe, L., Birditt, K. S., and Zarit, S. (2012c). “Relationships between young adults and their parents,” in Early Adulthood in a Family Context. National Symposium on Family Issues, Vol. 2, eds A. Booth, S. Brown, N. Landale, W. Manning, and S. McHale (New York, NY: Springer). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1436-0_5

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Cheng, Y.-P., Wesselmann, E. D., Zarit, S., Furstenberg, F., and Birditt, K. S. (2012b). Helicopter parents and landing pad kids: intense parental support of grown children. J. Marriage Fam. 74, 880–896. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00987.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Huo, M., and Birditt, K. S. (2020). A decade of research on intergenerational ties: technological, economic, political, and demographic changes. J. Marriage Fam. 82, 383–403. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12604

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Huo, M., Kim, K., and Birditt, K. S. (2017). Coresident and noncoresident emerging adults’ daily experiences with parents. Emerg. Adulthood 5, 337–350. doi: 10.1177/2167696816676583

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Kim, K., Birditt, K. S., and Zarit, S. H. (2016a). The ties that bind: midlife parents’ daily experiences with grown children. J. Marriage Fam. 78, 431–450. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12273

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Kim, K., Davis, E. M., Furstenberg, F. F. J., Birditt, K. S., and Zarit, S. H. (2015). “I’ll give you the world”: socioeconomic differences in parental support of adult children. J. Marriage Fam. 77, 844–865. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12204

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Kim, K., Tennant, P. S., Birditt, K. S., and Zarit, S. H. (2016b). Intergenerational support in a daily context. Gerontologist 56, 896–908. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnv035

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Pillemer, K. A., Silverstein, M., and Suitor, J. J. (2012a). The baby boomers’ intergenerational relationships. Gerontologist 52, 199–209. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnr139

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., Sechrist, J., and Birditt, K. (2013a). Changing views on intergenerational ties. Gerontology 59, 64–70. doi: 10.1159/000342211

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fingerman, K. L., VanderDrift, L. E., Dotterer, A. M., Birditt, K. S., Zarit, S. H., Fingerman, K. L., et al. (2011). Support to aging parents and grown children in Black and White families. Gerontologist 51, 441–452. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnq114

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Finzi-Dottan, R., and Cohen, O. (2011). Young adult sibling relations: the effects of perceived parental favoritism and narcissism. J. Psychol. 145, 1–22. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2010.528073

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Frank, H. (2007). young adults’ relationship with parents and siblings: the role of marital status, conflict and post-divorce predictors. J. Divorce Remarriage 46, 105–124. doi: 10.1300/J087v46n03_07

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Frank, H. (2008). The influence of divorce on the relationship between adult parent-child and adult sibling relationships. J. Divorce Remarriage 48:21. doi: 10.1300/J087v48n03_02

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Franz, A. O., and McKinney, C. (2018). Parental and child psychopathology: moderated mediation by gender and parent-child relationship quality. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 49, 843–852. doi: 10.1007/s10578-018-0801-0

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Freeman, H., and Almond, T. M. (2010). Mapping young adults’ use of fathers for attachment support: implications on romantic relationship experiences. Early Child Dev. Care 180, 227–248. doi: 10.1080/03004430903415080

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Furstenberg, F. Jr. (2010). On a new schedule: transitions to adulthood and family change. Future Child. 20, 67–87. doi: 10.1353/foc.0.0038

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Galambos, N. L., Fang, S., Horne, R. M., Johnson, M. D., and Krahn, H. J. (2018). Trajectories of perceived support from family, friends, and lovers in the transition to adulthood. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 35, 1418–1438. doi: 10.1177/0265407517717360

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gamache Martin, C. (2018). In the Spirit of Full Disclosure: Maternal Characteristics that Encourage Adolescent Disclosure of Distressing Experiences. Electronic Thesis. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

Google Scholar

Ganong, L. H., Coleman, M., and Jamison, T. (2011). Patterns of stepchild–stepparent relationship development. J. Marriage Fam. 73, 396–413. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00814.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gentzler, A. L., Oberhauser, A. M., Westerman, D., and Nadorff, D. K. (2011). College students’ use of electronic communication with parents: links to loneliness, attachment, and relationship quality. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 14, 71–74. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0409

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ghali, M. N. (2010). Attachment to Parents, Family Communication Patterns, and Family Satisfaction in Emerging Adulthood. Electronic Thesis. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.

Google Scholar

Gillespie, B. J., and Treas, J. (2017). Adolescent intergenerational cohesiveness and young adult proximity to mothers. J. Fam. Issues 38, 798–819. doi: 10.1177/0192513X15598548

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Golombok, S., Owen, L., Blake, L., Murray, C., and Jadva, V. (2009). Parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of 18-year-old adolescents conceived by in vitro fertilisation. Hum. Fertil. (Cambridge, England) 12, 63–72. doi: 10.1080/14647270902725513

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gozu, H. (2017). The Role of Personality, Perceived Parental Differential Treatment, and Perceptions of Fairness on the Quality of Sibling Relationships Among Emerging Adults. Electronic Thesis. Albany, NY: State University of New York at Albany.

Google Scholar

Gray, P. B., Longkumer, W., Panda, S., and Rangaswamy, M. (2019). Grandparenting in Urban Bangalore, India: support and involvement from the standpoint of young adult university students. Sage Open 9:215824401987107. doi: 10.1177/2158244019871070

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Guan, S.-S. A., and Fuligni, A. J. (2015). Changes in parent, sibling, and peer support during the transition to young adulthood. J. Res. Adolesc. 26, 286–299. doi: 10.1111/jora.12191

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Guan, S.-S. A., and Shen, J. (2015). Language brokering and parental praise and criticism among young adults from immigrant families. J. Child Fam. Stud. 24, 1334–1342. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9940-5

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gungordu, N., and Hernandez-Reif, M. (2020). Sibling relationship dynamics relates to young adults’ empathic responding. J. Fam. Stud. doi: 10.1080/13229400.2020.1753560

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hair, E. C., Moore, K. A., Garrett, S. B., Ling, T., and Cleveland, K. (2008). The continued importance of quality parent-adolescent relationships during late adolescence. J. Res. Adolesc. 18, 187–200. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00556.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Halliwell, D. (2016). “I know you, but I don’t know who you are”: siblings’ discursive struggles surrounding experiences of transition. Western J. Commun. 80, 327–347. doi: 10.1080/10570314.2015.1091493

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hammons, A. J. (2010). Family Rituals as Promotive Factors for Emerging Adult Well-Being in an Ethnically Diverse Sample. Electronic Thesis, University of California, Riverside.

Google Scholar

Hamwey, M. K., Rolan, E. P., Jensen, A. C., and Whiteman, S. D. (2019). “Absence makes the heart grow fonder”: a qualitative examination of sibling relationships during emerging adulthood. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 36, 2487–2506. doi: 10.1177/0265407518789514

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hamwey, M. K., and Whiteman, S. D. (2020). Jealousy links comparisons with siblings to adjustment among emerging adults. Fam. Relat. 70, 483–497. doi: 10.1111/fare.12428

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hancock, R. C. (2013). The Impact of Shared Musical Identity, Shared Family Identity, and Accommodation on Satisfaction in Parent/Young Adult Relationships. Electronic Thesis. Denver, CO: University of Denver.

Google Scholar

Hardie, J. H., and Seltzer, J. A. (2016). Parent-child relationships at the transition to adulthood: a comparison of black, hispanic, and white immigrant and native-born youth. Soc. Forces 95, 321–354. doi: 10.1093/sf/sow033

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hartnett, C. S., Fingerman, K. L., and Birditt, K. S. (2018). Without the ties that bind: US young adults who lack active parental relationships. Adv. Life Course Res. 35, 103–113. doi: 10.1016/j.alcr.2018.01.004

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hendry, L. B., and Kloep, M. (2010). How universal is emerging adulthood? An empirical example. J. Youth Stud. 13, 169–179. doi: 10.1080/13676260903295067

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hessel, H., and Dworkin, J. (2018). Emerging adults’ use of communication technology with family members: a systematic review. Adolesc. Res. Rev. 3, 357–373. doi: 10.1007/s40894-017-0064-1

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hoenayi, R. K., and Yendork, J. S. (2018). “I wouldn’t say we were treated equally”: experiences of young adult stepchildren in the Ghanaian context. J. Divorce Remarriage 59, 539–554. doi: 10.1080/10502556.2018.1466250

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hollifield, C. R., and Conger, K. J. (2015). The role of siblings and psychological needs in predicting life satisfaction during emerging adulthood. Emerg. Adulthood 3, 143–153.

Google Scholar

Hwang, W., Yoon, J., Silverstein, M., and Brown, M. T. (2019). Intergenerational affectual solidarity in biological and step relations: the moderating role of religious similarity. Fam. Relat. 68, 549–564. doi: 10.1111/fare.12397

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Iacovou, M. (2002). Regional differences in the transition to adulthood. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 580, 40–69. doi: 10.1177/000271620258000103

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jacoby, R. J., and Heatherington, L. (2016). Growing up with an anxious sibling: psychosocial correlates and predictors of sibling relationship quality. Curr. Psychol. 35, 57–68. doi: 10.1007/s12144-015-9360-8

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jensen, A. C. (2012). “Life Still Isn’t fair”: Parental Differential Treatment of Siblings During Emerging Adulthood. Electronic Thesis. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

Google Scholar

Jensen, A. C., Whiteman, S. D., and Fingerman, K. L. (2018). “Can’t live with or without them:” Transitions and young adults’ perceptions of sibling relationships. J. Fam. Psychol. 32, 385–395. doi: 10.1037/fam0000361

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jensen, T. M., and Lippold, M. A. (2018). Patterns of stepfamily relationship quality and adolescents’ short-term and long-term adjustment. J. Fam. Psychol. 32, 1130–1141. doi: 10.1037/fam0000442

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jiang, L. C., Yang, I. M., and Wang, C. (2017). Self-disclosure to parents in emerging adulthood: examining the roles of perceived parental responsiveness and separation-individuation. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 34, 425–445. doi: 10.1177/0265407516640603

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jimenez, A. P. (2008). A longitudinal analysis of communication between mothers and adolescents. Psychol. Spain 12, 1–12.

Google Scholar

Johnson, M. K. (2013). Parental financial assistance and young adults’ relationships with parents and well-being. J. Marriage Fam. 75, 713–733. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12029

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Jou, Y.-H. (2015). Longitudinal effect of parent-child interactions on psychological well-being during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Chin. J. Psychol. 57, 67–89.

Google Scholar

Jung, E., Hwang, W., Kim, S., Sin, H., Zhao, Z., Zhang, Y., et al. (2020). Helicopter parenting, autonomy support, and student wellbeing in the United States and South Korea. J. Child Fam. Stud. 29, 358–373. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01601-7

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kane, M., and Bibby, J. (2018). A Place to Grow: Exploring the Future Health of Young People in Five Sites Across the UK. London: The Health Foundation.

Google Scholar

Kanter, M., Afifi, T., and Robbins, S. (2012). The impact of parents “friending” their young adult child on Facebook on perceptions of parental privacy invasions and parent-child relationship quality. J. Commun. 62, 900–917. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01669.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Karre, J. K. (2012). An exploratory study of latent patterns of fathering behavior using Latent Profile Analysis. Electronic Thesis, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, Illinois.

Google Scholar

Katz, S. J., Hammen, C. L., and Brennan, P. A. (2013). Maternal depression and the intergenerational transmission of relational impairment. J. Fam. Psychol. 27, 86–95. doi: 10.1037/a0031411

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Keijsers, L., Loeber, R., Branje, S., and Meeus, W. (2011). Bidirectional links and concurrent development of parent-child relationships and boys’ offending behavior. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 120, 878–889. doi: 10.1037/a0024588

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Khafi, T. Y., Yates, T. M., and Luthar, S. S. (2014). Ethnic differences in the developmental significance of parentification. Family Process 53, 267–287. doi: 10.1111/famp.12072

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kibblewhite, S. J. (2008). Family Relationships and Emotional Reciprocity in Adolescent/Young Adult Sisters. Electronic Thesis. Windsor, ON: University of Windsor.

Google Scholar

Killoren, S. E., Alfaro, E. C., and Kline, G. (2016). Mexican American emerging adults’ relationships with siblings and dimensions of familism values. Pers. Relationsh. 23, 234–248. doi: 10.1111/pere.12125

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Killoren, S. E., Alfaro, E. C., Lindell, A. K., and Streit, C. (2014). Mexican American college students’ communication with their siblings. Fam. Relat. 63, 513–525. doi: 10.1111/fare.12085

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Killoren, S. E., de Jesus, S. A. R., Updegraff, K. A., and Wheeler, L. A. (2017). Sibling relationship quality and Mexican-origin adolescents’ and young adults’ familism values and adjustment. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 41, 155–164. doi: 10.1177/0165025415607084

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Killoren, S. E., Wheeler, L. A., Updegraff, K. A., Rodriguez de Jesus, S. A., and McHale, S. M. (2015). Longitudinal associations among parental acceptance, familism values, and sibling intimacy in Mexican-origin families. Fam. Process 54, 217–231. doi: 10.1111/famp.12126

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Kim, A. H. (2008). Korean Parents’ and Adolescents’ Reports of Parenting Styles: A Developmental Study. (Electronic Thesis. College Park, MD: University of Maryland.

Google Scholar

Kim, J. (2012). Patterns of Parent-Child Relationship Quality, Parent Depression and Adolescent Development Outcomes. Electronic Thesis, University of Washington, United States.

Google Scholar

Kim, K., Birditt, K. S., Zarit, S. H., and Fingerman, K. L. (2020). Typology of parent-child ties within families: associations with psychological well-being. J. Fam. Psychol. 34, 448–458. doi: 10.1037/fam0000595

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

King, V., and Lindstrom, R. (2016). Continuity and change in stepfather-stepchild closeness between adolescence and early adulthood. J. Marriage Fam. 78, 730–743. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12281

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lai, M.-C., Chiu, Y.-N., Gadow, K. D., Gau, S. S.-F., and Hwu, H.-G. (2010). Correlates of gender dysphoria in Taiwanese university students. Arch. Sex. Behav. 39, 1415–1428. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9570-y

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lamborn, S. D., and Moua, M. (2008). Normative family interactions: hmong American adolescents’ perceptions of their parents. J. Adolesc. Res. 23, 411–437. doi: 10.1177/0743558407310772

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lanthier, R. P. (2007). Personality traits and sibling relationships in emerging adults. Psychol. Rep. 100, 672–674. doi: 10.2466/pr0.100.2.672-674

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lanz, M., and Tagliabue, S. (2007). Do I really need someone in order to become an adult? Romantic relationships during emerging adulthood in Italy. J. Adolesc. Res. 22, 531–549. doi: 10.1177/0743558407306713

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lanz, M., and Tagliabue, S. (2014). Supportive relationships within ongoing families: cross-lagged effects between components of support and adjustment in parents and young adult children. J. Adolesc. 37, 1489–1503. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.07.017

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lanza, H. I., Huang, D. Y. C., Murphy, D. A., and Hser, Y.-I. (2013). A latent class analysis of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence: prediction to later adolescent sexual risk-taking. J. Early Adolesc. 33, 404–428. doi: 10.1177/0272431612445794

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Layland, E. K., Hodge, C. J., Mikala, G., and Peets, J. O. (2020). Rethinking leisure time use metrics: greater diversity in shared sibling leisure is associated with higher relationship quality during emerging adulthood. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 37, 516–537. doi: 10.1177/0265407519867771

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lee, S.-A. (2019). Romantic relationships in young adulthood: parental divorce, parent-child relationships during adolescence, and gender. J. Child Fam. Stud. 28, 411–423. doi: 10.1007/s10826-018-1284-0

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Levitt, M. J., Silver, M. E., and Santos, J. D. (2007). Adolescents in transition to adulthood: parental support, relationship satisfaction, and post-transition adjustment. J. Adult Dev. 14, 53–63. doi: 10.1007/s10804-007-9032-5

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Levpuscek, M. P., and Gril, A. (2010). Patterns of individuation in Slovenian adolescents and their relationship with adolescents’ perceptions of parents, friends and teachers. Behav. Psychol. 18, 119–138.

Google Scholar

Li, J.-B., Willems, Y. E., Stok, F. M., Dekovic, M., Bartels, M., and Finkenauer, C. (2019). Parenting and self-control across early to late adolescence: a three-level meta-analysis. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 14, 967–1005. doi: 10.1177/1745691619863046

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lim, N. E. (2012). Family Closeness, Parental Role Fulfillment and Immigration Stress: A Study on Filipino American Young Adults’ Satisfaction with Parental Upbringing. Electronic Thesis. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Google Scholar

Lindell, A. K. (2019). Family Relationships During Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Course and Associations with Emotional and Academic Adjustment. Electronic Thesis. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri.

Google Scholar

Lindell, A. K., and Campione-Barr, N. (2017). Continuity and change in the family system across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Marriage Fam. Rev. 53, 388–416. doi: 10.1080/01494929.2016.1184212

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lindell, A. K., Campione-Barr, N., and Greer, K. B. (2014). Associations between adolescent sibling conflict and relationship quality during the transition to college. Emerg. Adulthood 2, 79–91. doi: 10.1177/2167696813502778

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lindell, A. K., Campione-Barr, N., and Killoren, S. E. (2015). Technology-mediated communication with siblings during the transition to college: associations with relationship positivity and self-disclosure. Fam. Relat. 64, 563–578. doi: 10.1111/fare.12133

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Lindell, A. K., Killoren, S. E., and Campione-Barr, N. (2020). Parent-child relationship quality and emotional adjustment among college students: the role of parental financial support. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 1–23. doi: 10.1177/0265407520964870

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Littman, L. (2018). Rapid-onset gender dysphoria in adolescents and young adults: a study of parental reports. PLoS One 13:e0202330. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202330

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Luerssen, A., Shane, J., and Budescu, M. (2019). Emerging adults’ relationship with caregivers and their romantic attachment: quality communication helps. J. Child Fam. Stud. 28, 3412–3424. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01523-4

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Malkin, M. L., and McKinney, C. (2019). Racial differences in parental involvement and physical and psychological maltreatment: processes related to regard for parents. J. Fam. Issues 40, 739–763. doi: 10.1177/0192513X18819218

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

MaloneBeach, E. E., Hakoyama, M., and Arnold, S. (2018). The good grandparent: perspectives of young adults. Marriage Fam. Rev. 54, 582–597. doi: 10.1080/01494929.2017.1414724

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mansson, D. H., Floyd, K., and Soliz, J. (2017). Affectionate communication is associated with emotional and relational resources in the grandparent-grandchild relationship. J. Intergen. Relationsh. 15, 85–103. doi: 10.1080/15350770.2017.1294007

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mansson, D. H., and Sigurdardottir, A. G. (2019). A multinational comparison of grandchildren’s received affection from their grandparents. J. Intergen. Relationsh. 17, 127–140. doi: 10.1080/15350770.2018.1535343

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Marceau, K., Knopik, V. S., Neiderhiser, J. M., Lichtenstein, P., Spotts, E. L., Ganiban, J. M., et al. (2016). Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: implications for genotype-environment correlation. Dev. Psychopathol. 28, 149–166. doi: 10.1017/S0954579415000358

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Marchant, C., and O’Donohoe, S. (2014). Edging out of the nest: emerging adults’ use of smartphones in maintaining and transforming family relationships. J. Mark. Manag. 30:1554. doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2014.935798

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Maru, M. (2021). A Mixed Methods Study of Asian American Adolescent Suicidality. Electronic Thesis. Boston, MA: Boston University.

Google Scholar

Masten, A. S., Burt, K. B., Roisman, G. I., Obradovic, J., Long, J. D., and Tellegen, A. (2004). Resources and resilience in the transition to adulthood: continuity and change. Dev. Psychopathol. 16, 1071–1094.

Google Scholar

Maximo, S. I., and Carranza, J. S. (2016). Parental attachment and love language as determinants of resilience among graduating university students. Sage Open 6, 1–11. doi: 10.1177/2158244015622800

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

McKinney, C., and Milone, M. C. (2012). Parental and late adolescent psychopathology: mothers may provide support when needed most. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 43, 747–760. doi: 10.1007/s10578-012-0293-2

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

McKinney, C., Stearns, M., and Szkody, E. (2018). Maltreatment and affective and behavioral problems in emerging adults with and without oppositional defiant disorder symptoms: mediation by parent-child relationship quality. J. Interpers. Violence 36, 2612–2632. doi: 10.1177/0886260518760014

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Melby, J. N., Conger, R. D., Fang, S.-A., Wickrama, K. A. S., and Conger, K. J. (2008). Adolescent family experiences and educational attainment during early adulthood. Dev. Psychol. 44, 1519–1536. doi: 10.1037/a0013352

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mendonca, M., and Fontaine, A. M. (2013). Late nest leaving in Portugal: its effects on individuation and parent-child relationships. Emerg. Adulthood 1, 233–244. doi: 10.1177/2167696813481773

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Milevsky, A. (2019). Parental factors, psychological well-being, and sibling dynamics: a mediational model in emerging adulthood. Marriage Fam. Rev. 55, 476–492. doi: 10.1080/01494929.2018.1518822

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Milevsky, A. (2020). Relationships in transition: maternal and paternal parenting styles and change in sibling dynamics during adolescence. Eur. J. Dev. Psychol. 17. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2020.1865144

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Milevsky, A., and Heerwagen, M. (2013). A phenomenological examination of sibling relationships in emerging adulthood. Marriage Fam. Rev. 49, 251–263. doi: 10.1080/01494929.2012.762444

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Miller, A. B. K. (2010). Young adult daughters’ accounts of relationships with nonresidential fathers: relational damage, repair, and maintenance. J. Divorce Remarriage 51, 293–309. doi: 10.1080/10502551003651985

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Miller-Ott, A. E., Kelly, L., and Duran, R. L. (2014). Cell phone usage expectations, closeness, and relationship satisfaction between parents and their emerging adults in college. Emerg. Adulthood 2, 313–323. doi: 10.1177/2167696814550195

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mitchell, J. M., and Abraham, K. M. (2018). Parental mental illness and the transition to college: coping, psychological adjustment, and parent-child relationships. J. Child Family Stud. 27, 2966–2977. doi: 10.1007/s10826-018-1133-1

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mizzi, A., Honey, A., Scanlan, J. N., and Hancock, N. (2020). Parent strategies to support young people experiencing mental health problems in Australia: what is most helpful? Health Soc. Care Commun. 28, 2299–2311. doi: 10.1111/hsc.13051

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Moberg, T., Lichtenstein, P., Forsman, M., and Larsson, H. (2011). Internalizing behavior in adolescent girls affects parental emotional overinvolvement: a cross-lagged twin study. Behav. Gen. 41, 223–233. doi: 10.1007/s10519-010-9383-8

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Moilanen, K. L., and Raffaelli, M. (2010). Support and conflict in ethnically diverse young adults’ relationships with parents and friends. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 34, 46–52. doi: 10.1177/0165025409348553

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Monserud, M. A. (2008). Intergenerational relationships and affectual solidarity between grandparents and young adults. J. Marriage Fam. 70, 182–195. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00470.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Morales, A. R., Consoli, A. J., and Romero Morales, A. (2020). Mexican/Mexican-American siblings: the impact of undocumented status on the family, the sibling relationship, and the self. J. Latinx Psychol. 8, 112–126. doi: 10.1037/lat0000133

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Moreno, A. (2012). The transition to adulthood in Spain in a comparative perspective: the incidence of structural factors. Young 20, 19–48.

Google Scholar

Morgan, E. M., Thorne, A., and Zurbriggen, E. L. (2010). A longitudinal study of conversations with parents about sex and dating during college. Dev. Psychol. 46, 139–150. doi: 10.1037/a0016931

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Munford, R., and Sanders, J. (2016). Foster parents: an enduring presence for vulnerable youth. Adopt. Foster. 40, 264–278. doi: 10.1177/0308575916656713

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Murry, V. M. (2019). Healthy african american families in the 21st century: navigating opportunities and transcending adversities. Fam. Relat. 68, 342–357. doi: 10.1111/fare.12363

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Naughton, C. M., O’Donnell, A. T., and Muldoon, O. T. (2020). Exposure to domestic violence and abuse: evidence of distinct physical and psychological dimensions. J. Interpers. Violence 35, 3102–3123. doi: 10.1177/0886260517706763

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Needham, B. L. (2008). Reciprocal relationships between symptoms of depression and parental support during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. J. Youth Adolesc. 37, 893–905. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9181-7

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Needham, B. L., and Austin, E. L. (2010). Sexual orientation, parental support, and health during the transition to young adulthood. J. Youth Adolesc. 39, 1189–1198. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9533-6

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Christensen, K. J., Evans, C. A., and Carroll, J. S. (2011). Parenting in emerging adulthood: an examination of parenting clusters and correlates. J. Youth Adolesc. 40, 730–743. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9584-8

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Neves, B. B., de Carvalho, D. D., Serra, F., Torres, A., and Fraga, S. (2019). Social capital in transition(s) to early adulthood: a longitudinal and mixed-methods approach. J. Adolesc. Res. 34, 85–112. doi: 10.1177/0743558418755685

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Neyer, F. J., and Lehnart, J. (2007). Relationships matter in personality development: evidence from an 8-year longitudinal study across young adulthood. J. Pers. 75, 535–568. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00448.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Nicholson, K. L. (2007). Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Self-Esteem, and the Marital Attitudes of African American and Hispanic Young Adults from Divorced and Intact Families. Electronic Thesis. West Hartford, CT: University of Hartford.

Google Scholar

Nitzburg, G. C. (2013). Effects of Exposure to Parental Divorce on the Sibling Relationship in Emerging Adults. Electronic Thesis. New York, NY: Columbia University.

Google Scholar

Nwokeji, S. E. (2009). Symbiotic Caregivers: A Qualitative Case Study of African American Custodial Grandparents and Their Grandchildren. Electronic Thesis. Memphis, TN: The University of Tennessee Health Science Center.

Google Scholar

Nylander, P.-A., Kallstrom, A., and Hellfeldt, K. (2018). After a childhood with a parent in prison - relationships and well-being as a child and young adult. Int. J. Prison. Health 14, 34–45. doi: 10.1108/IJPH-12-2016-0074

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Oliveira, C., Fonseca, G., Sotero, L., Crespo, C., and Relvas, A. P. (2020). Family dynamics during emerging adulthood: reviewing, integrating, and challenging the field. J. Fam. Theor. Rev. 12, 350–367. doi: 10.1111/jftr.12386

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

O’Mara, C., and Schrodt, P. (2017). Negative parental disclosures as mediators of coparental communication and relational outcomes in parent-child relationships. J. Fam. Commun. 17, 169–184. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2017.1284071

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Owen, L., and Golombok, S. (2009). Families created by assisted reproduction: parent-child relationships in late adolescence. J. Adolesc. 32, 835–848. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.10.008

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Padilla, J., Jager, J., Updegraff, K. A., McHale, S. M., and Umana-Taylor, A. J. (2020). Mexican-origin family members’ unique and shared family perspectives of familism values and their links with parent-youth relationship quality. Dev. Psychol. 56, 993–1008. doi: 10.1037/dev0000913

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Padilla-Walker, L. M., Carlo, G., and Memmott-Elison, M. K. (2018). Longitudinal change in adolescents’ prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family. J. Res. Adolesc. 28, 698–710. doi: 10.1111/jora.12362

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Padilla-Walker, L. M., and Daye, S. (2019). Longitudinal associations among routine disclosure, the parent–child relationship, and adolescents’ prosocial and delinquent behaviors. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 36, 1853–1871. doi: 10.1177/0265407518773900

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., and Knapp, D. J. (2014). “Because I’m still the parent, that’s why!” parental legitimate authority during emerging adulthood. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 31, 293–313. doi: 10.1177/0265407513494949

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Pantelis, K., Bonotis, K., and Kandri, T. (2015). It attacked my change: an exploratory study with young adults on the impact of divorce and their adjustment processes during adolescence. J. Divorce Remarriage 56, 634–656. doi: 10.1080/10502556.2015.1092360

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Park, K. (2019). Black-white differences in the relationship between parental income and depression in young adulthood: the different roles of family support and college enrollment among US adolescents. Sociol. Race Ethn. 5, 578–594. doi: 10.1177/2332649218776037

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Parra, A., Oliva, A., Reina, M., and del, C. (2015). Family relationships from adolescence to emerging adulthood. J. Fam. Issues 36, 2002–2020.

Google Scholar

Peters, B., and Ehrenberg, M. F. (2008). The influence of parental separation and divorce on father–child relationships. J. Divorce Remarriage 49, 78–109. doi: 10.1080/10502550801973005

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Peters, M., Godfrey, C., McInerney, P., Munn, Z., Trico, A., and Khalil, H. (2020). “Chapter 11: Scoping reviews,” in JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis, eds E. Aromataris and Z. Munn (Adelaide, SA: JBI), doi: 10.46658/JBIMES-20-12

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Petree, C. A. (2014). Parent-Child Closeness Post College: The Impact of Residence, Self-Efficacy, and Family Financial Support. Electronic Thesis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

Google Scholar

Petrowski, C. E., and Stein, C. H. (2016). Young women’s accounts of caregiving, family relationships, and personal growth when mother has mental illness. J. Child Fam. Stud. 25, 2873–2884. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0441-6

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Peyper, E., de Klerk, W., and Spies, R. (2015). Experiences of young adult women with emotionally absent fathers. J. Psychol. Africa 25, 127–133. doi: 10.1080/14330237.2015.1021513

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Phillips, K. E., and Schrodt, P. (2015a). Sibling confirmation as a moderator of rivalries and relational outcomes in sibling relationships. J. Fam. Commun. 15, 58–74. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2014.980825

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Phillips, K. E., and Schrodt, P. (2015b). Sibling antagonism and shared family identity as mediators of differential parental treatment and relational outcomes in the sibling relationship. Western J. Commun. 79, 634–654. doi: 10.1080/10570314.2015.1078497

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Platt, L. F., Scheitle, C. P., and McCown, C. M. (2020). The role of family relationships in mental health distress for transgender and gender nonconforming college students at university counseling centers. J. Coll. Stud. Psychother. 17. doi: 10.1080/87568225.2020.1810598

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ponti, L., and Martina, S. (2019). The roles of parental attachment and sibling relationships on life satisfaction in emerging adults. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 36, 1747–1763. doi: 10.1177/0265407518771741

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ponti, L., and Martina, S. (2020). Normative and nonnormative pattern in achievement of developmental tasks: sibling relationship quality and life satisfaction during emerging adulthood. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 37, 2307–2322. doi: 10.1177/0265407520923034

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Portner, L. C., and Riggs, S. A. (2016). Sibling relationships in emerging adulthood: associations with parent-child relationship. J. Child Fam. Stud. 25, 1755–1764. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0358-5

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Proulx, C., and Helms, H. M. (2008). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of change and continuity in their relationships with young adult sons and daughters. J. Fam. Issues 29, 234–261. doi: 10.1177/0192513X07307855

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Quan, S. (2020). Socioeconomic status and prosocial behaviors among chinese emerging adults: sequential mediators of parental warmth and personal belief in a just world. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 120:105680. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105680

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Radmacher, K. A., and Azmitia, M. (2016). Family emotional support and the individuation process among Asian- and Latino-Heritage College-going emerging adults. J. Res. Adolesc. 26, 979–990. doi: 10.1111/jora.12251

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rasmi, S., Chuang, S. S., and Hennig, K. (2017). Seeing eye to eye in Arab Canadian families: emerging adult perspectives. J. Adolesc. Res. 32, 263–290. doi: 10.1177/0743558416630814

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Reed, K., Lucier-Greer, M., and Parker, T. S. (2016). Exploring parental divorce among emerging adult women: the roles of support networks and family relationships. Prof. Psychol. Res. Pract. 47, 231–241. doi: 10.1037/pro0000090

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Reid, M., and Finley, G. E. (2010). Trends in African American and Caribbean fathers’ nurturance and involvement. Cult. Soc. Masculinities 2, 107–119. doi: 10.3149/CSM.0202.107

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Reis, O., Azmitia, M., Syed, M., Radmacher, K., and Gills, J. (2009). Patterns of social support and mental health among ethnically-diverse adolescents during school transitions. Eur. J. Dev. Sci. 3, 39–50.

Google Scholar

Reising, M. M., Watson, K. H., Hardcastle, E. J., Merchant, M. J., Roberts, L., Forehand, R., et al. (2013). Parental depression and economic disadvantage: the role of parenting in associations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. J. Child Fam. Stud. 22, 335–343.

Google Scholar

Riggio, H. R., and Valenzuela, A. M. (2011). Parental marital conflict and divorce, parent-child relationships, and social support among Latino-American young adults. Pers. Relationsh. 18, 392–409. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01305.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Roach, A. L. (2019). Exposure to Parental Conflict and Violence in Childhood: Influences on Emerging Adults’ Relationships with Parents and Perceptions of Intimate Relationships. Electronic Thesis. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri.

Google Scholar

Roche, K. M., Bingenheimer, J. B., and Ghazarian, S. R. (2016). The dynamic interdependence between family support and depressive symptoms among adolescents in Ghana. Int. J. Public Health 61, 487–494. doi: 10.1007/s00038-015-0781-9

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Roksa, J. (2019). Intergenerational exchange of support in low-income families: understanding resource dilution and increased contribution. J. Marriage Fam. 81, 601–615. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12558

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Roos, V., van Biljon, L., and Carstens, U. (2019). Young female adults’ experiences of their relationships with older people: the Mmogo-method. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 36, 556–572. doi: 10.1177/0265407517735913

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rosario, M., Reisner, S. L., Corliss, H. L., Wypij, D., Calzo, J., and Austin, S. B. (2014a). Sexual-orientation disparities in substance use in emerging adults: a function of stress and attachment paradigms. Psychol. Addict. Behav. 28, 790–804. doi: 10.1037/a0035499

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rosario, M., Reisner, S. L., Corliss, H. L., Wypij, D., Frazier, A. L., and Austin, S. B. (2014b). Disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation in emerging adults: the roles of attachment and stress paradigms. Arch. Sex. Behav. 43, 901–916. doi: 10.1007/s10508-013-0129-6

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rossetto, K. R., Manning, J., and Green, E. W. (2017). Perceptions of paternal support after transitioning to college: interpretations based on the generative fathering framework. Western J. Commun. 81, 405–425. doi: 10.1080/10570314.2017.1283047

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rote, W. M., Olmo, M., Feliscar, L., Jambon, M. M., Ball, C. L., and Smetana, J. G. (2020). Helicopter parenting and perceived overcontrol by emerging adults: a family-level profile analysis. J. Child Fam. Stud. 29, 3153–3168. doi: 10.1007/s10826-020-01824-z

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Roth, G., Kanat-Maymon, Y., and Assor, A. (2016). The role of unconditional parental regard in autonomy-supportive parenting. J. Pers. 84, 716–725. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12194

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rowen, J., and Emery, R. (2014). Examining parental denigration behaviors of co-parents as reported by young adults and their association with parent-child closeness. Couple Fam. Psychol. 3, 165–177. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000026

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rowen, J., and Emery, R. E. (2019). Parental denigration boomerangs versus alienates: parent-child closeness, reciprocity, and well-being using multiple informants. Fam. Relat. 68, 119–134. doi: 10.1111/fare.12324

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Roy, K., Vesely, C. K., Fitzgerald, M., and Jones, N. B. (2010). Young fathers at work: the influence of parental closeness and contact on employment. Res. Hum. Dev. 7, 123–139. doi: 10.1080/15427609.2010.481537

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Saeed, A., and Hanif, R. (2014). Effect of parental conditional regard on parent-adolescents relationship quality: emotional state as moderator. Pak. J. Psychol. Res. 29, 315–331.

Google Scholar

Schaan, V. K., Schulz, A., Schaechinger, H., and Voegele, C. (2019). Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk to develop mental disorders in women. J. Affect. Disord. 257, 91–99. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.06.071

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Schrodt, P., and Afifi, T. D. (2018). A social relations model of negative relational disclosures and closeness in families. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 35, 180–201. doi: 10.1177/0265407516680304

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Schrodt, P., Ledbetter, A. M., and Ohrt, J. K. (2007). Parental confirmation and affection as mediators of family communication patterns and children’s mental well-being. J. Fam. Commun. 7, 23–46. doi: 10.1207/s15327698jfc0701_3

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Schrodt, P., and Phillips, K. E. (2016). Self-disclosure and relational uncertainty as mediators of family communication patterns and relational outcomes in sibling relationships. Commun. Monogr. 83, 486–504. doi: 10.1080/03637751.2016.1146406

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Scott, M. E. (2010). The Effects of Non-Resident Father Involvement on Offspring Well-Being During the Transition to Adulthood. Electronic Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

Google Scholar

Scruggs, X., and Paul, S. (2020). The frequency and comfort of political conversations with parents as mediators of family communication patterns and relational quality in parent-child relationships. J. Fam. Commun. 21, 17–33. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2020.1860053

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Segrin, C., Woszidlo, A., Givertz, M., Bauer, A., and Murphy, M. T. (2012). The association between overparenting, parent-child communication, and entitlement and adaptive traits in adult children. Fam. Relat. 61, 237–252. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00689.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Predicting the timing of leaving home and related developmental tasks: Parents’ and children’s perspectives. J. Soc. Pers. Relationsh. 27, 495–518. doi: 10.1177/0265407510363426

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Seo, J. (2007). The Long-Term Influence of Father Involvement on Emerging Adults’ Psychological Well-Being. Electronic Thesis. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University.

Google Scholar

Shanahan, L., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., and Osgood, D. W. (2008). Linkages between parents’ differential treatment, youth depressive symptoms, and sibling relationships. J. Marriage Fam. 70, 480–494. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00495.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Shenaar-Golan, V., and Goldberg, A. (2019). Subjective well-being, parent-adolescent relationship, and perceived parenting style among israeli adolescents involved in a gap-year volunteering service. J. Youth Stud. 22, 1068–1082. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2018.1563289

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Shenhav, S. (2018). The Cultural and Familial Contexts of Young Adults’ Romantic Relationships. Electronic Thesis. Irvine, CA: University of California Irvine.

Google Scholar

Sheu, K. (2019). A Qualitative Study of the Effects of Acculturation on Adult Taiwanese American Older Brother, Younger Sister Dyad Relationships. Electronic Thesis. Alhambra, CA: Alliant International University.

Google Scholar

Shilo, G., and Savaya, R. (2012). Mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth and young adults: differential effects of age, gender, religiosity, and sexual orientation. J. Res. Adolesc. 22, 310–325. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00772.x

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Shirtcliff, E. A., Skinner, M. L., Obasi, E. M., and Haggerty, K. P. (2017). Positive parenting predicts cortisol functioning six years later in young adults. Dev. Sci. 20, 1–14. doi: 10.1111/desc.12461

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Siennick, S. E. (2013). Still the favorite? Parents’ differential treatment of siblings entering young adulthood. J. Marriage Fam. 75, 981–994. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12048

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Smout, A., Lazarus, R. S., and Hudson, J. L. (2020). The relationship between parenting and anxiety in emerging adulthood. Cogn. Ther. Res. 44, 182–195. doi: 10.1007/s10608-019-10037-8

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Soliz, J. (2007). Communicative predictors of a shared family identity: comparison of grandchildren’s perceptions of family-of-origin grandparents and stepgrandparents. J. Fam. Commun. 7, 177–194. doi: 10.1080/15267430701221636

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Spitz, A., Winkler Metzke, C., and Steinhausen, H.-C. (2020). Development of perceived familial and non-familial support in adolescence; findings from a community-based longitudinal study. Front. Psychol. 11:486915. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.486915

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Stapley, E., Vainieri, I., Li, E., Merrick, H., Jeffery, M., Foreman, S., et al. (2021). A scoping review of the factors that influence families’ ability or capacity to provide young people with emotional support over the transition to adulthood. PsyArXiv [Preprint]. doi: 10.31234/osf.io/w53nz

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Stearns, M., and McKinney, C. (2020). Connection between parent–child religiosity: moderated mediation by perceived maternal and paternal warmth and overprotection and emerging adult gender. Rev. Relig. Res. 62:153. doi: 10.1007/s13644-020-00404-3

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Stormshak, E. A., DeGarmo, D. S., Chronister, K. M., Caruthers, A. S., Stapleton, J., and Falkenstein, C. A. (2019). The impact of substance use during middle school and young adulthood on parent-young adult relationships. J. Fam. Psychol. 33, 797–808. doi: 10.1037/fam0000549

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Streit, C., Carlo, G., Killoren, S. E., and Alfaro, E. C. (2018). Family members’ relationship qualities and prosocial behaviors in U.S. Mexican young adults: the roles of familism and ethnic identity resolution. J. Fam. Issues 39, 1056–1084. doi: 10.1177/0192513X16686134

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Suh, G. W., and Fabricius, W. V. (2019). Reciprocal relations between emerging adults’ representations of relationships with mothers, fathers, and romantic partners. Fam. Process 59, 807–821. doi: 10.1111/famp.12458

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Sulimani-Aidan, Y. (2019). Qualitative exploration of supporting figures in the lives of emerging adults who left care compared with their noncare-leaving peers. Child Fam. Soc. Work 24, 247–255. doi: 10.1111/cfs.12609

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Sulimani-Aidan, Y. (2020). At-risk israeli-arab young adults: barriers and resources during the transition to adulthood. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 119:105517. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105517

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Sulimani-Aidan, Y., Sivan, Y., and Davidson-Arad, B. (2017). Comparison of hope and the child-parent relationship of at-risk adolescents at home and in residential care. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 76, 125–132. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.03.005

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Szkody, E., and McKinney, C. (2020). Parental depression and emerging adult psychological problems: indirect effects by parents’ social support and emerging adult engagement coping. Basic Appl. Soc. Psychol. 42, 209–218. doi: 10.1080/01973533.2020.1737069

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Szwedo, D. E., Hessel, E. T., Loeb, E. L., Hafen, C. A., and Allen, J. P. (2017). Adolescent support seeking as a path to adult functional independence. Dev. Psychol. 53, 949–961. doi: 10.1037/dev0000277

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Tanaka, R. (2016). Asian American Parental Involvement, Adolescent Depression and Young Adult General Health: The Moderating Role of Intergenerational Gap in Acculturation. Electronic Thesis. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.

Google Scholar

Tibbetts, G., and Scharfe, E. (2015). Oh, brother (or sister)!: an examination of sibling attachment, conflict, and cooperation in emerging adulthood. J. Relationsh. Res. 6:e8. doi: 10.1017/jrr.2015.4

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K., Colquhoun, H., Kastner, M., et al. (2016). A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 16:15. doi: 10.1186/s12874-016-0116-4

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K. K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., et al. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann. Intern. Med. 169, 467–473. doi: 10.7326/M18-0850

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Tsai, K. M., Telzer, E. H., and Fuligni, A. J. (2013). Continuity and discontinuity in perceptions of family relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. Child Dev. 84, 471–484. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01858.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Tucker, C. J., Sharp, E. H., van Gundy, K. T., and Rebellon, C. (2019). Perpetration of sibling aggression and sibling relationship quality in emerging adulthood. Pers. Relationsh. 26, 529–539. doi: 10.1111/pere.12288

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., Perez-Brena, N. J., Baril, M. E., and Mchale, S. M. (2012). Mexican-origin mothers’ and fathers’ involvement in adolescents’ peer relationships: a pattern-analytic approach. J. Marriage Fam. 74, 1069–1083. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.01009.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Updegraff, K. A., McHale, S. M., Whiteman, S. D., Thayer, S. M., and Delgado, M. Y. (2005). Adolescent sibling relationships in Mexican American families: exploring the role of familism. J. Fam. Psychol. 19, 512–522. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.4.512

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Updegraff, K. A., Umana-Taylor, A. J., Zeiders, K. H., Bravo, D. Y., and Jahromi, L. B. (2018). Familism values across the transition to adolescent motherhood: links to family functioning and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ adjustment. Dev. Psychopathol. 30, 1589–1609. doi: 10.1017/S0954579418000986

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Van der Cruijsen, R., Buisman, R., Green, K., Peters, S., and Crone, E. A. (2019). Neural responses for evaluating self and mother traits in adolescence depend on mother-adolescent relationships. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 14, 481–492. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsz023

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

van Harmelen, A.-L., Gibson, J. L., St Clair, M. C., Owens, M., Brodbeck, J., Dunn, V., et al. (2016). Friendships and family support reduce subsequent depressive symptoms in at-risk adolescents. PLoS One 11:e0153715. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153715

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Verbeke, L., de Clercq, B., van der Heijden, P., Hutsebaut, J., and van Aken, M. A. G. (2017). The relevance of schizotypal traits for understanding interpersonal functioning in adolescents with psychiatric problems. Pers. Disord. 8, 54–63. doi: 10.1037/per0000163

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Vreeland, A., Gruhn, M. A., Watson, K. H., Bettis, A. H., Compas, B. E., Forehand, R., et al. (2019). Parenting in context: associations of parental depression and socioeconomic factors with parenting behaviors. J. Child Fam. Stud. 28, 1124–1133.

Google Scholar

Walecka-Matyja, K. K. (2018). Personality and interpersonal sibling relationships in early adulthood–causal analysis. Arch. Psychiatry Psychother. 20, 67–75. doi: 10.12740/APP/97227

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Walkner, A. J., and Rueter, M. A. (2014). Adoption status and family relationships during the transition to young adulthood. J. Fam. Psychol. 28, 877–886. doi: 10.1037/fam0000020

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Walkner-Spaan, A. J. (2016). Adoption and Emerging Adult-Mother Relationship Quality: Is There An Association?. Electronic Thesis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

Google Scholar

Wallace, S. D., and Harwood, J. (2018). Associations between shared musical engagement and parent-child relational quality: the mediating roles of interpersonal coordination and empathy. J. Fam. Commun. 18, 202–216. doi: 10.1080/15267431.2018.1466783

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Wang, N. (2019). Support gaps in parent-emerging adult dyads: the role of support quality. Pers. Relationsh. 26, 232–261. doi: 10.1111/pere.12276

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ward, K. P., Limb, G. E., Higbee, S., and Haueter, H. (2019). Stepfamily closeness and depression among American Indian emerging adults: a structural equation modeling approach. J. Fam. Issues 40, 267–292. doi: 10.1177/0192513X18808574

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Watson, J. (2019). The Effects of Having a Sibling With a Psychiatric Disorder on Young Adults’ Psychosocial Functioning. Electronic Thesis. Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University.

Google Scholar

Wetzel, M., and Hank, K. (2020). Grandparents’ relationship to grandchildren in the transition to adulthood. J. Fam. Issues 41, 1885–1904. doi: 10.1177/0192513X19894355

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Whiteman, S. D., McHale, S. M., and Crouter, A. C. (2011). Family relationships from adolescence to early adulthood: changes in the family system following firstborns’ leaving home. J. Res. Adolesc. 21, 461–474.

Google Scholar

Wise, R., and Onol, A. (2020). Intergenerational relationships and aging anxiety among emerging adults in turkey. J. Intergener. Relationsh. 19, 196–208. doi: 10.1080/15350770.2020.1730293

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Wise, R. M. (2008). Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships and Perceptions of Grandparent goal Influence in Emerging Adulthood. Electronic Thesis. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.

Google Scholar

Won, J. Y. (2009). The Relationships Between Social Ties, Social Support, and Material Hardship Among Youth Aging out of Foster Care. Electronic Thesis. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago.

Google Scholar

Woo, B. M. (2020). The Impact of Parental Differential Treatment on Self-Esteem and Quality of Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood. Electronic Thesis. Alhambra, CA: Alliant International University.

Google Scholar

Wu, K., Kim, J. H. J., Nagata, D. K., and Kim, S. I. (2018). Perceptions of sibling relationships and birth order among Asian American and European American Emerging adults. J. Fam. Issues 39, 3641–3663. doi: 10.1177/0192513X18783465

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Yahirun, J. J. (2013). Race, Ethnic, and Nativity Differences in Intergenerational Relationships. Electronic Thesis. Los Angeles, CA: University of California.

Google Scholar

Yahirun, J. J. (2019). Intermarriage and mother-child relationships. Soc. Sci. Res. 78, 203–214. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2018.12.005

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Yang, C. (2018). Social media as more than a peer space: college freshmen encountering parents on Facebook. J. Adolesc. Res. 33, 442–469. doi: 10.1177/0743558416659750

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Young, L., and Ehrenberg, M. F. (2007). Siblings, parenting, conflict, and divorce: do young adults’ perceptions of past family experiences predict their present adjustment? J. Divorce Remarriage 47, 67–85. doi: 10.1300/J087v47n03_04

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Yu, Q., Huang, P., and Liu, L. (2017). From “connected presence{”} to “panoptic presence{”}: reframing the parent-child relationship on mobile instant messaging uses in the Chinese translocal context. Mob. Media Commun. 5, 123–138. doi: 10.1177/2050157916688348

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Yu, T. (2007). The Interplay of Parental Marital Conflict and Divorce in Young Adult Children’s Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners. Electronic Thesis. Auburn, AL: Auburn University.

Google Scholar

Zhang, J., and Flynn, C. (2020). University students/graduates who have experienced parental incarceration: a qualitative exploratory study of protective processes. Qual. Soc. Work 19, 882–900. doi: 10.1177/1473325019888007

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Zhang, J., Savla, J., and Cheng, H.-L. (2019). Cumulative risk and immigrant youth’s health and educational achievement: mediating effects of inter- and intra-familial social capital. Youth Soc. 51, 793–813. doi: 10.1177/0044118X17717501

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Madsen, S. D., and Hanisch, M. (2011). Connecting the intrapersonal to the interpersonal: autonomy, voice, parents, and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. European J. Dev. Psychol. 8, 509–525.

Google Scholar

Zuckerman, T. (2018). The Effect of Communication Between Parents and Their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-Efficacy. Electronic Thesis. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

Google Scholar

Zupancic, M., and Kavcic, T. (2014). Student personality traits predicting individuation in relation to mothers and fathers. J. Adolesc. 37, 715–726. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.12.005

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Zupancic, M., Komidar, L., and Levpuscek, M. P. (2012). Individuation in relation to parents: a case with Slovene emerging adult students. Spec. Issue Individ. Dev. Fam. Relat. East. Eur. 16, 265–292.

Google Scholar

Zupancic, M., Komidar, L., and Levpuscek, M. P. (2014). Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction. J. Adolesc. 37, 1421–1433. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.03.014

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Keywords: scoping review, transition to adulthood, young adult, social support, family, emotional support, emerging adult

Citation: Stapley E, Vainieri I, Li E, Merrick H, Jeffery M, Foreman S, Casey P, Ullman R and Cortina M (2021) A Scoping Review of the Factors That Influence Families’ Ability or Capacity to Provide Young People With Emotional Support Over the Transition to Adulthood. Front. Psychol. 12:732899. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.732899

Received: 29 June 2021; Accepted: 06 September 2021;
Published: 14 October 2021.

Edited by:

Yoshifumi Ikeda, Joetsu University of Education, Japan

Reviewed by:

Paula Fomby, University of Michigan, United States
Evalill Bølstad, University of Oslo, Norway

Copyright © 2021 Stapley, Vainieri, Li, Merrick, Jeffery, Foreman, Casey, Ullman and Cortina. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Emily Stapley, emily.stapley@annafreud.org