Original Research ARTICLE
Differences between False-Positive Self-Reported Psychotic Experiences, Clinically Validated Psychotic Experiences and Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population
- 1Other, Brazil
- 2Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
- 3National Institute of Science and Technology for the Control of Intoxications (INCT), Brazil
- 4Department of Psychiatry, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Netherlands
- 5Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, Netherlands
- 6Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, United Kingdom
- 7Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
- 8Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
- 9Departamento de Psiquiatria, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil
- 10Departamento de Psiquiatria,, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil
- 11Deparment of Psychosis studies, King's College London, United Kingdom
- 12department of Psychiatry, School of Mental Health and NeuroScience, Maastricht University, Netherlands
Purpose: Psychotic experiences in childhood (such as hearing voices or being suspicious) represent an important phenotype for early intervention. However, these can be defined in several ways: self-reported psychotic experiences that have not been validated by a clinician, or ‘false positive psychotic experiences’ (FPE), clinically validated psychotic experiences (CPE), and attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS). Very few studies have investigated how these distinctions impact on clinical and other domains. The present study aims to compare FPE, CPE and APS among children and adolescents. Methods: 2,241 individuals aged 6-14 years provided self-ratings of 20 psychotic experiences. A trained psychologist conducted an interview with the CAARMS to validate or reject reported experiences and to rate the presence of APS and affective flattening. In parallel, parents provided information about their children's mental health to an independent interviewer. We tested the association of mutually exclusive FPE, CPE and APS (FPE=33%; CPE=11%, APS=6%), with potential predictors (positive attributes, levels of psychopathology and blunted affect). Results: Most associations were qualitatively similar and there was a dose-response in the strength of associations across categories, such that APS> CPE> FPE. Experiences in all 3 categories were associated with female sex. FPE were associated with overall levels of psychopathology, but to a lesser degree than CPE and APS. APS and CPE were associated with less positive attributes, with APS more so than CPE. Only APS was associated with affective flattening. Conclusions: In children and adolescents, FPE, CPE and APS all index liability for psychopathology, but as clinical relevance increases, there are stronger associations with more specific measures of psychotic psychopathology.
Keywords: psychiatric epidemiology, Schizophrenia, Adolescents', Attenuated psychotic symptoms, psychotic experiences
Received: 22 May 2019;
Accepted: 01 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Moriyama, Van Os, Gadelha, Pa, Salum, Manfro, de Jesus Mari, Miguel, Rohde, Polanczyk, McGuire, Bressan and Drukker. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD. Tais S. Moriyama, Other, Itapira, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org