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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Sustain. Food Syst. | doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2019.00104

Food access deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa: prevalence and implications for agricultural interventions

 Simon Fraval1, 2*,  James Hammond1, Jessica R. Bogard3, Mary Ng’endo4,  Jacob van Etten5,  Mario Herrero3, Simon J. Oosting2, Imke J. de Boer2, Mats Lannerstad6,  Nils Teufel1,  Christine Lamanna4,  Todd Rosenstock7,  Tim Pagella8,  Bernard Vanlauwe9, Paul M. Dontsop-Nguezet10,  David Baines11,  Pietro Carpena11, Paulin Njingulula10, Chris Okafor10, Jannike Wichern2, Augustine Ayantunde12, Caroline Bosire1,  Sabrina Chesterman4, Esther Kihoro1, James Rao1, Tom Skirrow11,  Jonathan Steinke5,  Clare M. Stirling13, Viviane Yameogo1 and  Mark Van Wijk1
  • 1International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya
  • 2Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands
  • 3Agriculture & Food, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Brisbane, Australia
  • 4World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya
  • 5Bioversity International (Costa Rica), Costa Rica
  • 6Independent researcher, Sweden
  • 7World Agroforestry Centre (Democratic Republic of Congo), Democratic Republic of Congo
  • 8School of Natural Sciences, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Bangor University, United Kingdom
  • 9Natural Resource Management Research Area, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kenya
  • 10International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Democratic Republic of Congo
  • 11TreeAid, United Kingdom
  • 12International Livestock Research Institute (Burkina Faso), Burkina Faso
  • 13International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Mexico), Mexico

Our understanding of food security in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by limitations in the temporal and spatial representativeness of data. Food balance sheets provide scalable estimates of per capita food availability, but fail to represent food access, stability and their causal linkages. In contrast, rural household surveys represent detailed conditions for one or multiple points in time, but are influenced by survey timing and are often limited in geographical coverage. This study draws on a large sample of rural land-holding households in SSA (n = 6,353) to identify household level food access deficiencies and to understand the associations with rural livelihoods and food sourcing behaviour throughout the year. Food access deficiencies were identified using food security of access and diet diversity indicators. Dietary diversity and channel of access (farm or purchased) were enumerated for the ‘flush’ and ‘lean’ periods and food security of access was enumerated for the lean period only – making the results of this study independent of survey timing. As many as 39% of households were classified as severely food insecure (in terms of food access) and as many as 49% of households were likely to be deficient in micronutrients in the lean period. Vulnerability to food insecurity and micronutrient deficiencies differed by household composition, agricultural livelihood characteristics and agro-ecological zone. Dairy, fruit and vitamin A-rich produce were predominantly accessed through the farm channel. Households with a livestock component to their farm had a lower prevalence of severe food insecurity and higher diet diversity scores.
These findings have implications for the development of nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions. Interventions need to be tailored to agro-ecological zone, household composition, scale of operation and production mix. Increasing income will not necessarily result in improved diet diversity or healthy dietary choices. Interventions focused on income generation should monitor and promote crop and livestock production diversity and provide nutrition education.

Keywords: nutrition-sensitive, crops, Livestock, diet diversity, Farm systems, Rural Development, Bayesian, Specialisation, Diversification

Received: 23 Jun 2019; Accepted: 25 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Fraval, Hammond, Bogard, Ng’endo, van Etten, Herrero, Oosting, de Boer, Lannerstad, Teufel, Lamanna, Rosenstock, Pagella, Vanlauwe, Dontsop-Nguezet, Baines, Carpena, Njingulula, Okafor, Wichern, Ayantunde, Bosire, Chesterman, Kihoro, Rao, Skirrow, Steinke, Stirling, Yameogo and Van Wijk. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Simon Fraval, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, simonfraval@gmail.com