Conceptual Analysis ARTICLE
Antimicrobial policies in United States beef production: choosing the right instruments to reduce antimicrobial use and resistance under structural and market constraints
- 1Cornell University, United States
- 2Texas A&M University, United States
Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal agriculture contributes to the selection of resistant bacteria, potentially constituting a public health threat. To address antimicrobial resistance, public policies set by governments, as well as intra-sectoral approaches, can be implemented. In this paper, we explore how common policy instruments such as regulations, economic incentives, and voluntary agreements could help reduce AMU in beef production. We first describe the structure of the beef supply chain which directly influences the choice of policy instruments. We describe how externalities and imperfect information affect this system. We then discuss how five policy instruments would each perform to achieve a reduction in AMU. Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) represents the major driver of AMU in beef production; consequently, reducing its incidence would decrease significantly the amounts of antimicrobials administered. We consider control options for BRD at different stages of the beef supply chain.
Keywords: Policy Analysis, antimicrobial use (AMU), Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Beef production system, policy instrument, Economics
Received: 14 Feb 2019;
Accepted: 08 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Ioannis Magouras, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Reviewed by:Bouda Vosough Ahmadi, European Commission for the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease (EuFMD), Italy
Ane Nødtvedt, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Copyright: © 2019 Lhermie, Kaniyamattam, Verteramo, Tauer, Scott and Grohn. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Guillaume Lhermie, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States, email@example.com