Original Research ARTICLE
Evaluation of the Fluorescence Polarization Assay as a rapid on-spot test for ruminant brucellosis in Côte d’Ivoire
- 1University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
- 2International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya
- 3Veterinary Public Health Institue, University of Bern, Switzerland
- 4Péléforo-Gbon-Coulibaly University, Côte d'Ivoire
- 5Swiss Centre for Scientific Research, Côte d'Ivoire
- 6Direction des Services Vétérinaires de Côte d’Ivoire, Côte d'Ivoire
- 7Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Switzerland
Brucellosis is a zoonosis of economic and public health concern. While most diagnostic tests for brucellosis can only be performed in the laboratory, the Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA) was developed as a rapid point-of-care field test. This pilot project aimed to validate the use of FPA for rapid diagnosis of ruminant brucellosis on the field, and to compare the FPA performance with that of the more commonly used Rose Bengal Test (RBT).
Blood samples were first collected from ruminants in a livestock market, and later from a nearby slaughterhouse in Port Bouët, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Samples collected in the livestock market were processed and tested with the FPA in a central laboratory, while samples collected in the slaughterhouse were processed immediately and the FPA was performed on site. To assess the FPA intra-test agreement, a portion of the serum samples tested at the slaughterhouse were re-tested with the FPA in the laboratory later the same day. To assess inter-test agreement, all serum samples were retested with the RBT.
A total of 232 samples were tested with the FPA, 106 and 126 from the livestock market and slaughterhouse, respectively. Of these, 26 tested positive and 39 were doubtful for brucellosis. The FPA was repeated on 28 of the samples collected at the slaughterhouse, and comparison of results indicated a moderate intra-test agreement (Kappa=0.41). The agreement improved when the doubtful category was treated as negative (Kappa=0.65), and when cattle were excluded (Kappa=0.56 to 0.61). The RBT was performed on 229 samples, and of these 10 tested positive. A comparison of FPA and RBT results indicated poor agreement (Kappa=0.00); this improved to slight when only samples taken at the livestock market and tested in the laboratory were considered (Kappa=0.14).
The FPA did not perform well in tropical field conditions, possibly due to the high ambient temperatures in the slaughterhouse. Moreover, a difference in performance was noted in relation to the species tested, whereby the FPA seemed to perform better on sheep and goat samples, compared to cattle samples. These findings highlight that further adjustments are needed before implementing the FPA on the field.
Keywords: Brucella, Rose bengal test, Kappa (k) statistic, Cows', Sheep, Fluorescence polarization assay, Mc'Nemar's Chi-squared test, Goats
Received: 18 Feb 2019;
Accepted: 13 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Julio Alvarez, VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre (UCM), Spain
Reviewed by:Heinzpeter Schwermer, Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, Switzerland
Raquel Conde-Alvarez, University of Navarra, Spain
Copyright: © 2019 Falzon, Traore, Kallo, Assamoi, Bonfoh and Schelling. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Laura C. Falzon, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, firstname.lastname@example.org