Original Research ARTICLE
A CLINICAL, RADIOGRAPHIC AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF UNERUPTED TEETH IN DOGS AND CATS: 73 CASES (2001-2018)
- 1Department of Veterinary Medical Science, University of Bologna, Italy
- 2Veterinary Hospital I Portoni Rossi srl, Italy
- 3Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food, University of Padua, Italy
- 4Istituto Veterinario di Novara, Italy
- 5Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland
- 6Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padua, Italy
- 7Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Istituto Veterinario di Novara, Italy
- 8Clinica Veterinaria San Siro, Italy
Lack of dental eruption may be accompanied by development of dentigerous cysts and has also been rarely associated to neoplasia. However, little information is available on prevalence of unerupted teeth and associated lesions in dogs and cats. The main objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic data of canine and feline dental patients with unerupted teeth, and assess the prevalence of associated dentigerous cysts and tumors. Secondary aims included the evaluation of possible factors implicated in cystic development, and description of the histological features of dentigerous cysts. Medical and dental records, intraoral photographs, intraoral radiographs of client-owned dogs and cats with clinically missing teeth examined between 2001 and March 2018 were reviewed. Collected data included signalment, reason for presentation, number, type, depth of inclusion and angulation of unerupted teeth, presence of cystic lesions or tumors, abnormalities affecting involved teeth, histopathological findings, performed treatment and outcome. Seventy-three animals (69 dogs and 4 cats) with 113 unerupted teeth were included. The most frequent unerupted tooth in dogs was the first premolar (78%), followed by the canine and third molar teeth. Dentigerous cysts presented same peculiar microscopic features and were diagnosed associated to 48 (44.4%) teeth in dogs and one out of five unerupted teeth in cats. The affected teeth in dogs were predominantly in horizontal inclination (40%) and in soft tissue inclusion (77%). Brachycephalic canine breeds were overrepresented. The only unerupted tooth in Boxer dogs was the first premolar tooth (32 teeth). 90% of Boxers developed associated lesions (25 dentigerous cysts and one tumor). Two ameloblastomas (one in a dog and one in a cat) and one osteosarcoma (in a dog) were diagnosed in association to three unerupted teeth. Histology was essential in diagnosing two odontogenic cysts not evident on radiographs. In all cases that were followed-up, treatment (i.e. extraction, extraction and surgical curettage, or operculectomy) appeared successful. Untreated dentigerous cysts showed progression at re-examination. None of the unerupted teeth without evidence of cyst at the time of diagnosis showed incipient cystic development. None of the evaluated factors was associated to lack of eruption and/or development of associated lesions.
Keywords: Unerupted teeth, Dentigerous Cyst, Oral neoplasia, dog, cat
Received: 18 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 27 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Bellei, Ferro, Zini and Gracis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Margherita Gracis, Istituto Veterinario di Novara, Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Granozzo con Monticello, 20151, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org